May 6, 2017

Camouflage, Concealment and Decoys

25 cards
    • What is Camouflage, Concealment and Decoys (CCD)?
       . . . 
      CCD is the use of materials and techniques to hide, blend, disguise, decoy, or disrupt the appearance of military targets and/or their backgrounds. CCD helps prevent an enemy from detecting or identifying friendly troops, equipment, activities, or installations. Properly designed CCD techniques take advantage of the immediate environment and natural and artificial materials.
      (FM 20-3 Aug 1999 / 1 / PDF 6)

      • What Army Field Manual covers Camouflage, Concealment, and Decoys?
         . . . 
        FM 20-3.

        • Is each Soldier responsible for Camouflaging and Concealing themselves and their equipment?
           . . . 
          Yes. Practicing good CCD techniques lessens a soldier’s probability of becoming a target.
          (FM 20-3 Aug 1999 / 1-5 / PDF 7)

          • The primary goal of CCD is to avoid enemy detection. What seven rules are critical when considering how to avoid detection or identification?
             . . . 
            1. Identify the enemy’s detection capabilities.
            2. Avoid detection by the enemy’s routine surveillance.
            3. Take countermeasures against the enemy’s sensors.
            4. Employ realistic, CCD countermeasures.
            5. Minimize movement.
            6. Use decoys properly.
            7. Avoid predictable operational patterns.
            (FM 20-3 Aug 1999 / 3-1 / PDF 17)

            • Any change in an existing terrain pattern will indicate the presence of activity. Terrain patterns have distinctive characteristics that are necessary to preserve. What are the five general terrain patterns?
               . . . 
              1. Agricultural. Agricultural terrain has a checkerboard pattern when viewed from aircraft. This is a result of the different types of crops and vegetation found on most farms.
              2. Urban. Urban terrain is characterized by uniform rows of housing with interwoven streets and interspersed trees and shrubs.
              3. Wooded. Woodlands are characterized by natural, irregular features, unlike the geometric patterns of agricultural and urban terrains.
              4. Barren. Barren terrain presents an uneven, irregular work of nature without the defined patterns of agricultural and urban areas. Desert environments are examples of barren terrain.
              5. Arctic. Arctic terrain is characterized by snow and ice coverage.
              (FM 20-3 Aug 1999 / 3-37 / PDF 24)

              • What is decoying?
                 . . . 
                Decoying is deploying a false or simulated target(s) within a target’s scene or in a position where the enemy might conclude that it has found the correct target(s). Decoys generally draw fire away from real targets. Depending on their fidelity and deployment, decoys will greatly enhance survivability.
                (FM 20-3 Aug 1999 / 3-51 / PDF 28)

                • The LCSS is the standard Army camouflage net currently available. What do the stainless steel fibers in the
                  LCSS do?
                   . . . 
                  They reduce a vehicle’s visual and radar signatures. Stainless steel fibers in the LCSS material absorb some of the radar signal and reflect most of the remaining signal in all directions. The result is a small percentage of signal return to the radar for detection.
                  (FM 20-3 Aug 1999 / 3-63 / PDF 30)

                  • The radar-scattering capabilities of the LCSS are effective only if there is how much space between the LCSS and the camouflaged equipment if the LCSS completely covers the equipment?
                     . . . 
                    There must be at least two feet of space.
                    (FM 20-3 Aug 1999 / 3-63 / PDF 30)

                    • When using natural materials to camouflage it is important to what?
                       . . . 
                      Not disturb the look of the natural surroundings and also use materials that are commonly found in that specific are.
                      (FM 20-3 Aug 1999 / 5-19 / PDF 42)

                      • There are two types of cover and concealment. What are the two types?
                         . . . 
                        1. Natural cover — ravines, hollows, reverse slopes, bushes, grass and shadows.
                        2. Artificial cover — foxholes, trenches, walls, burlap, nets, or natural materials that are moved from their original spots, such as leaves bushes, or grass.

                        • When do you camouflage a fighting position?
                           . . . 
                          Camouflage as you prepare it.

                          • What is cover?
                             . . . 
                            Physical protection from bullets, fragments of exploding rounds, flame, nuclear effects and biological and chemical agents.

                            • What is concealment?
                               . . . 
                              Protection from enemy observation.

                              • What do you do with the excess dirt when digging a fighting position?
                                 . . . 
                                Take excess dirt away from the position to the rear.

                                • One of the key factors of good camouflage is blending. What is blending?
                                   . . . 
                                  Blending is trying to alter a target’s appearance so that it becomes a part of the background. Generally, it is arranging or applying camouflage material on, over, and/or around a target to reduce its contrast with the background.
                                  (FM 20-3 Aug 1999 / Section 2 / PDF 27)

                                  • Give several examples of natural materials, which can be used to camouflage both you and your equipment.
                                     . . . 
                                    Leaves, bushes, and grass.
                                    (FM 20-3 Aug 1999 / Section 2 / PDF 27)

                                    • How often should you change the camouflage when using natural material?
                                       . . . 
                                      When it doesn’t look natural and blend in with the natural surroundings.

                                      • How do you camouflage your clothes and LBE?
                                         . . . 
                                        Clothes, LBE and other weapons and equipment will have outlines altered by irregular patterns added to blend with the predominant color of the background in the area.

                                        • After camouflaging your position what should you do?
                                           . . . 
                                          Inspect it from the enemy’s viewpoint at least 35 meters forward.

                                          • What do you do with tracks that lead into your position?
                                             . . . 
                                            Cover or brush them.

                                            • Where should live foliage be gathered?
                                               . . . 
                                              As far as possible behind your position, so the enemy cannot see where it has been taken from.

                                              • What are two types of cover?
                                                 . . . 
                                                1. Natural.
                                                2. Man-made.

                                                • What are some examples of Natural cover?
                                                   . . . 
                                                  Logs.
                                                  Trees.
                                                  Stumps.
                                                  Ravines.
                                                  Hollows.

                                                  • What are some examples of Man-made cover?
                                                     . . . 
                                                    Fighting positions.
                                                    Trenches.
                                                    Walls.
                                                    Rubble.
                                                    Craters.

                                                    • Give some examples of natural concealment?
                                                       . . . 
                                                      Tree limbs.
                                                      Bushes.
                                                      Grass.
                                                      Shadows.

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