Jan 25, 2017

DynamicPlanet

35 cards
, 125 answers
      1. Rock A
      2. Rock B
      3. Impossible to tell with the information given
      4. They are both of equal age



    • Which of the following is FALSE about magma?
      1. Different magmas have different silica composition
      2. Most magmas come from the asthenosphere/ upper mantle
      3. Chemical compounds (like water) are not able to decrease the melting point of rock
      4. Some magmas come from rocks melted through decompression ( a decrease in pressure on the rock as it rises)

    • What type of volcano is this?
      1. Stratovolcano

    • In the diagram of the fault, which letter represents the hanging wall?

        1. Both A and B are the hanging walls
        2. A
        3. This fault has neither a hanging wall nor a foot wall
        4. B



      1. Which of the following did Alfred Wegener NOT know about when he proposed his theory of continental drift?
        1. The past climate changes recorded in rocks only makes sense if the continents have moved
        2. New oceanic crust is being created at mid- ocean ridges
        3. The edges of continents look like they once fit together
        4. Identical fossils are found on many different continents at certain times in the past

      2. Choose words from below and fill in the blanks. Each word may be used more than once, and some may not be used at all.

        Wordbank:

        Volcanoes, Lithosphere, Graben, Horst, Moho, Asthenosphere, Half Graben, Isostasy, Convection, Ridges, Trenches, Hotspots

        The more rigid moves slowly over the less rigid , which is thought to circulate slowly by . The pulls apart at and sinks at the .

        form chains of within individual plates rather than near plate boundaries. Because the is moving over fixed in the Earth’s underlying asthenosphere, hotspots grow as a trailing track of progressively older extinct volcanoes.

        The elevation difference between the continental and oceanic crusts is explained by the concept of  or buoyancy. Name the scientist who inferred this? George Airy.

        , is the boundary between the crust and the mantle.

        A normal fault that has a curved fault plane with the dip decreasing with depth can cause the down- dropped block to rotate. In such a case a is produced.

        1. The following are true about convergent boundaries EXCEPT:
          1. Convergent boundaries can result in both andesitic and rhyolitic magma types
          2. Convergent boundaries are the reason the Pacific Ring of Fire exists
          3. All convergent boundary types result in trenches and volcanoes
          4. Strato volcanoes are the common result of convergent boundaries

        2. Which of the following is FALSE concerning the graph above?
          1. The lower the temperature, the more solid the rock
          2. The higher the pressure, the more solid the rock
          3. Rock cannot melt by simply lowering the pressure on the rock
          4. The addition of water will shift the center line (the melting point) to the left of the graph

        3. For a shallow water wave, the speed of the wave is determined by depth and calculated with the equation: C= 3.13√D, where D is the depth of the water in meters. How fast does the wave travel if the depth of the water is 6km? Give the answer in km per hour.
          7.66 km per hour

          Would a large earthquake cause a tsunami to travel faster than a small earthquake?
          1. Sometimes

          2. Yes
          3. No
          4. Depends on depth

        4. If a strato volcano is found on a continent, what assumptions can be made about the volcano?
          1. The lava results from a hotspot
          2. The lava is basalt
          3. This is most likely Hawaii
          4. The lava probably results from a convergent boundary
          5. The lava is the least explosive of all lava types

        5. Which of the following major earthquakes did not
          occur at a plate boundary?
          1. 1989, Loma Prieta, California
          2. 1964 Anchorage, Alaska
          3. 1906 San Francisco, California
          4. 1812 New Madrid, Missouri

        6. What are seismic gaps?
          1. They are parts of faults that experience no earthquakes
          2. They are faults that are no longer active
          3. They are areas of a fault that should be experiencing an earthquake but are not, and so build up stress for a larger earthquake
          4. They are the gaps between p and s wave arrival times on a seismogram

        7. What type of magma you are likely to find?
          1. Andesite

        8. The shear strength of the rock multiplied by the fracture length and the total slip distance on the fault
          1. Moment Magnitude
          2. Mercalli Intensity
          3. Richter Scale

        9. Volcanic activities are not present at transform boundary.
          1. FALSE
          2. TRUE

        10. Which type of plate boundary results in the largest earthquakes?
          1. Transform boundaries
          2. Convergent boundaries
          3. Divergent boundaries
          4. None of the above

        11. Give 2 examples of transform fault. ,

          1. What is a pyroclastic flow?
            1. Lava that flows above ground with a very low viscosity
            2. Hot ash and mud that joins a river and flows downstream like wet cement
            3. Soils that behave like liquids during an earthquake of magnitude 5.5+
            4. An avalanche of hot ash and rock that flows downslope of a volcano

          2. (The star marks the currently active volcano. The triangles are islands being made) Which of the following statements is true?
            1. As the distance to an earthquake increases, the elapsed time between the arrival of the P- and S-waves increases
            2. As the distance to an earthquake increases, the elapsed time before the P-waves arrive decreases.
            3. As the distance to an earthquake increases, the ground shaking increases
            4. As the distance to an earthquake increases, the elapsed time before the S-waves arrive increases

          3. Lavas that have high silica content tend to:
            1. Lead to highly explosive eruptions
            2. Have higher iron content than low silica lavas
            3. None of the above
            4. Have lower viscosity than low silica lavas
            5. Trap fewer gases than low silica lavas

          4. An oceanographer witnesses the formation of a new island in the middle of the ocean. Not knowing the plate tectonics of the area, the only thing they do know is the shape of the mountain, which has a very steep (45 degree) slope. Using your skills, you help the oceanographer figure out what the plate tectonics of the area:

            1. Along which boundary are normal faults found?
              1. The San Andreas Fault (transform boundary)
              2. Cascadia subduction zone (convergent boundary)
              3. East African Rift Valley (divergent boundary)
              4. Normal faults are not found on plate boundaries

            2. The amplitude of the largest surface wave is used to determine the magnitude of the earthquake
              1. Mercalli Intensity
              2. Richter Scale
              3. Moment Magnitude

            3. Which of the following if FALSE concerning the layers of the Earth?
              1. The crust can be divided into both continental and oceanic crust
              2. The lithosphere “floats” on top of the more dense asthenosphere
              3. The core is the most dense of all of Earth’s layers
              4. The asthenosphere is chemically different from the lithosphere

            4. A qualitative measure of earthquakes based on how much the ground shook and how much damage was caused to human property/ life
              1. Mercalli Intensity
              2. Richter Scale
              3. Moment Magnitude

            5. What type of plate boundary would you guess this is? (Be specific)
              1. Oceanic Convergent

            6. A large earthquake struck Sumatra in 2004. The following questions are related to the Tsunami generated due to the earthquake. To understand waves, you need to be concerned with three things: the wavelength (L), the wave height (H) and the wave period (T). There are two main types of waves: deep-water waves and shallow water waves. A wave goes from a deep water wave to a shallow water when it nears the coast and can start to feel the bottom at a depth equal to the wavelength of the wave divided by 20 or D=L/20.

              How deep would the ocean need to be for a tsunami wave to the considered a deep-water wave, assuming the tsunami is travelling through the open ocean with a wavelength of 100 Km?
              Kilometers

              About how deep is the average ocean in feet??
              feet

              Are tsunamis considered deep water wave or shallow water wave?

              1. The total energy released in an earthquake
                1. Moment Magnitude
                2. Richter Scale
                3. Mercalli Intensity

              2. Which of the following is FALSE about a Tsunami wave?
                1. They slow down and wave heights increase as they get closer to land
                2. None of the above are false
                3. They can travel at airplane speeds in the open ocean
                4. Tsunamis can be generated by large transform boundary earthquakes
                5. Tsunami waves are generally not steep enough to break like normal waves at the beach

              3. Which of the following is true of shield volcanoes?
                1. Shield volcanoes are responsible for the most explosive eruptions
                2. Shield volcanoes are made of the same materials as stratovolcanoes
                3. They are smallest of volcano types
                4. They are primarily composed of andesitic lava
                5. None of the above are true

              4. Why do rhyolitic magmas trap so many gases?
                1. They have more silica, which turns to gas in the magma chamber
                2. They do not actually trap as many gases as basaltic magmas
                3. They have a very high viscosity, which makes it difficult to release pressure
                4. They are highly mafic and iron releases many gases in the liquid phase

              5. Using the magnetic reversals image from the question below, which of the following is FALSE about the image?
                1. This is a divergent boundary
                2. The youngest rock in the image is in the center of the ridge
                3. There are probably many earthquakes along this ridge, but they are most likely small in size
                4. One of the plates is moving faster than the other

              6. The image below shows magnetic reversals along a mid-ocean ridge. Which rock is older?

                1. Which of the following pieces of information do you NOT need to have in order to compute the distance of a seismogram to an epicenter of an earthquake?
                  1. The speed of the surface wave
                  2. The difference in arrival time between P and S waves
                  3. You need all the above pieces of information to make this calculation
                  4. The speed of a P- wave

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