Mar 21, 2016

ЕГЭ по английскому языку (аудирование №19: детальное понимание текста)

7 cards
, 21 answers
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    • James Abbot McNeill Whistler
      James Abbot McNeill Whistler

      James Abbot McNeill Whistler was born in Lowell, Massachusetts, USA although at one point in his life he claimed he was born in St. Petersburg! He declared ‘I shall be born when and where I want, and I do not choose to be born in Lowell’! But he did have a real connection with Russia. His father worked in Russia and, at the age of 9, young Whistler came to join him. He had private art lessons in St. Petersburg for 2 years before enrolling at the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts. He spent a lot of time in Russia but after his father died, Whistler, at the age of 15, returned home.

      Some years followed in the USA, during which he joined the army, learned print and map making and other skills. But at the age of 21 he left America, never to return. His first destination was Paris and his first circle of artist acquaintances belonged to the realist school of painting. During this period Whistler began to develop his theories about art: line, he believed, was more important than colour and the most important colour of all, to achieve total harmony, was black.

      At the age of 25 he made London his adopted home and soon began to make a name for himself as an artist. He had a huge ego, was a tireless self-promoter, dressed extravagantly, was famously witty and had a distinctive artistic style — a combination of factors that couldn’t fail
      to get him noticed in London society.

      He saw parallels between the harmony of music and the harmony of colours. Many of his paintings began to be titled or named after musical terms — they were called, ‘arrangements’, ‘harmonies’ or ‘nocturnes’. He adopted the slogan ‘art for art’s sakes’ meaning that art itself was independent of any moral or social function — a view he shared with his sometimes friend, Mr. Oscar Wilde.

      Wilde and Whistler became the essential guests for any important party in London and they competed in making witty and cutting remarks. Once Wilde was impressed by a Whistler comment and said ‘I wish I had said that’ to which Whistler replied ‘You will, Oscar, you will’. They fell out completely in the end and Whistler is the model for the murdered artist in ‘A Portrait of Dorian Gray’.

      But Whistler had other opponents. The art critic John Ruskin wrote that Whistler’s work was ‘flinging a pot of paint in the public’s face’. Whistler responded by taking Ruskin to court in one of the most famous legal contests in British History. Technically Whistler was the winner but he was only awarded a farthing in compensation — the equivalent of a kopek! But the cost of the trial contributed to Whistler being declared bankrupt and losing his house, paintings and property to pay his debts.

      Whistler recovered from this set back and until his death remained committed to his paintings and to developing his ideas. He categorically denied belonging to any school of painters. But he did have significant contact with and exchanged ideas with Realist, Impressionist and Symbolist artists, profoundly influencing many of them. He achieved fame throughout Europe and in America and today remains as popular as ever, with his work held in collections throughout the world. During the Ruskin trial he was asked how he could justify charging 200 guineas (then worth one hundred thousand pounds) for a painting that took 2 days to complete. His answer was that he charged the money ‘for the knowledge I have gained in a lifetime’.




      A8
      Whistler  . . . 
      studied in Russia.
      1. studied in Russia.
      2. was born in Russia.
      3. worked in Russia.

    • A9
      What happened to Whistler in Paris?
      1. He left the army.
      2. He learned printmaking.
      3. He met painters from the Realist School.

    • A10
      Whistler became well known in London for  . . . 
      several reasons.
      1. his distinctive style.
      2. his huge ego.
      3. several reasons.

    • A11
      Which is TRUE about the relationships between Whistler and Wilde?
      1. They competed with each other in making witty remarks.
      2. They were friends throughout their lives.
      3. They were the basis for characters in ‘A Portrait of Dorian Gray’.

    • A12
      The Ruskin trial resulted in  . . . 
      Whistler’s bankruptcy.
      1. no compensation to Whistler.
      2. Whistler’s bankruptcy.
      3. John Ruskin’s triumph.

    • A13
      Whistler belonged to  . . . 
      no particular school of painting.
      1. no particular school of painting.
      2. the Realist school of painting.
      3. the Impressionist school of painting.

    • A14
      Whistler’s price for his paintings was quite fair as he charged the buyer  . . . 
      for a life time knowledge and experience.
      1. for a life time knowledge and experience.
      2. for two complete days of work.
      3. who could afford to pay 200 guineas.

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