May 6, 2017

Land Navigation / Map Reading

77 cards
    • What is the Field Manual for map reading and land navigation?
       . . . 
      FM 3-25.26.

      • What are the basic colors of a map, and what does each color represent?
         . . . 
        • Black — Indicates cultural (man-made) features such as buildings and roads, surveyed spot elevations, and all labels.
        • Red-Brown — The colors red and brown are combined to identify cultural features, all relief features, non-surveyed spot elevations, and elevation, such as contour lines on red-light readable maps.
        • Blue — Identifies hydrography or water features such as lakes, swamps, rivers, and drainage.
        • Green — Identifies vegetation with military significance, such as woods, orchards, and vineyards.
        • Brown — Identifies all relief features and elevation, such as contours on older edition maps, and cultivated land on red-light readable maps.
        • Red — Classifies cultural features, such as populated areas, main roads, and boundaries, on older maps.
        • Other — Occasionally other colors may be used to show special information. These are indicated in the marginal information as a rule.
        (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 3-5 / PDF 24)

        • What are military symbols?
           . . . 
          Figures used to represent types of military organizations, installations, and activities.
          (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 3-4 / PDF 24)

          • Where is the Legend of the map found?
             . . . 
            Lower left margin.
            (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 3-1 / PDF 19)

            • What are contour lines?
               . . . 
              Imaginary lines on the ground connecting equal elevation, they represent high and low ground elevation.
              (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 10-2 / PDF 123)

              • What are 3 types of contour lines?
                 . . . 
                1. Index.
                2. Intermediate.
                3. Supplementary.
                (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 10-2 / PDF 123)

                • How many Mils are in one Degree?
                   . . . 
                  17.7 mils.
                  (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 6-1 / PDF 65)

                  • How many Norths are there on a military map?
                     . . . 
                    Three:
                    1. True north.
                    2. Magnetic north.
                    3. Grid north.
                    (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 3-1 / PDF 20)

                    • What shape are the contour lines that indicate a hill?
                       . . . 
                      A hill is shown on a map by contour lines forming concentric circles. The inside of the smallest closed circle is the hilltop.
                      (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 10-6 / PDF 133)

                      • What shape are the contour lines that indicate a saddle?
                         . . . 
                        A saddle is normally represented as an hourglass.
                        (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 10-6 / PDF 133)

                        • What shape are the contour lines that indicate a valley?
                           . . . 
                          Contour lines forming a valley are either U-shaped or V-shaped.
                          (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 10-6 / PDF 134)

                          • What shape are the contour lines that indicate a Ridge?
                             . . . 
                            Contour lines forming a ridge tend to be U-shaped or V-shaped. The closed end of the contour line points away from high ground.
                            (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 10-6 / PDF 134)

                            • What shape are the contour lines that indicate a depression?
                               . . . 
                              Usually only depressions that are equal to or greater than the contour interval will be shown. On maps, depressions are represented by closed contour lines that have tick marks pointing toward low ground.
                              (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 10-6 / PDF 135)

                              • What shape are the contour lines that indicate a draw?
                                 . . . 
                                The contour lines depicting a draw are U-shaped or V-shaped, pointing toward high ground.
                                (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 10-6 / PDF 135)

                                • What shape are the contour lines that indicate a spur?
                                   . . . 
                                  Contour lines on a map depict a spur with the U or V pointing away from high ground.
                                  (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 10-6 / PDF 136)

                                  • What shape are the contour lines that indicate a cliff?
                                     . . . 
                                    Cliffs are also shown by contour lines very close together and, in some instances, touching each other.
                                    (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 10-6 / PDF 136)

                                    • What shape are the contour lines that indicate a cut?
                                       . . . 
                                      This contour line extends the length of the cut and has tick marks that extend from the cut line to the roadbed, if the map scale permits this level of detail.
                                      (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 10-6 / PDF 137)

                                      • What shape are the contour lines that indicate a fill?
                                         . . . 
                                        This contour line extends the length of the filled area and has tick marks that point toward lower ground. If the map scale permits, the length of the fill tick marks are drawn to scale and extend from the base line of the fill symbol.
                                        (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 10-6 / PDF 137)

                                        • What must be done to a map before it can be used?
                                           . . . 
                                          It must be oriented.
                                          (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 11-1 / PDF 147)

                                          • What are five major terrain features found on a map?
                                             . . . 
                                            1. Hill.
                                            2. Ridge.
                                            3. Valley.
                                            4. Saddle.
                                            5. Depression.
                                            (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 10-6 / PDF 133)

                                            • What are the three minor terrain features found on a military map?
                                               . . . 
                                              1. Draw.
                                              2. Spur.
                                              3. Cliff.
                                              (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 10-6 / PDF 135)

                                              • What are the two supplementary terrain features found on a military map?
                                                 . . . 
                                                1. Cut.
                                                2. Fill.
                                                (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 10-6 / PDF 137)

                                                • What is a map?
                                                   . . . 
                                                  A graphic representation of a portion of the earth’s surface drawn to scale, as seen from above.
                                                  (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 2-1 / PDF 11)

                                                  • What is an azimuth?
                                                     . . . 
                                                    A horizontal angle, measured in a clockwise manner from a north base line, expressing direction.
                                                    (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 6-3 / PDF 66)

                                                    • What is vertical distance?
                                                       . . . 
                                                      The distance between the highest and lowest points measured.

                                                      • What is a contour interval?
                                                         . . . 
                                                        The vertical distance between adjacent contour lines on a map.
                                                        (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 3-1 / PDF 20)

                                                        • What is the distance between grid lines on a combat map?
                                                           . . . 
                                                          1 kilometer or 1000 meters.

                                                          • How many mils are there in a circle?
                                                             . . . 
                                                            6400 mils in 360 degrees.

                                                            • Which north is used when using a military map?
                                                               . . . 
                                                              Magnetic north when using a compass.
                                                              Grid north when using the map.

                                                              • How would you hold a lensatic compass?
                                                                 . . . 
                                                                Away from metal (weapons, electrical devices), level and firm.

                                                                • Name two ways to hold a compass?
                                                                   . . . 
                                                                  1. Compass-to-Cheek Method.
                                                                  2. Center-Hold Method.
                                                                  (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 9-4 / PDF 111)

                                                                  • Are topographic symbols drawn to scale?
                                                                     . . . 
                                                                    No.

                                                                    • What do topographic symbols represent?
                                                                       . . . 
                                                                      Man-made features.
                                                                      Natural features.
                                                                      (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 3-4 / PDF 24)

                                                                      • In military symbols, what colors are used for a map overlay and what do they represent?
                                                                         . . . 
                                                                        • Blue — friendly forces.
                                                                        • Red — enemy forces.
                                                                        • Black — boundaries.
                                                                        • Yellow — contaminated area both friendly and enemy.
                                                                        • Green — engineer obstacles, both friendly and enemy.

                                                                        • What is Back Azimuth?
                                                                           . . . 
                                                                          The opposite direction of an azimuth.
                                                                          (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 6-3 / PDF 67)

                                                                          • How do you figure out a back azimuth?
                                                                             . . . 
                                                                            To obtain a back azimuth from an azimuth:
                                                                            1. add 180 degrees if the azimuth is 180 degrees or less,
                                                                            2. subtract 180 degrees if the azimuth is 180 degrees or more.
                                                                            (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 6-3 / PDF 67)

                                                                            • What is a declination diagram?
                                                                               . . . 
                                                                              Shows the angular relationship between the magnetic north, grid north and true north.
                                                                              (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 3-1 / PDF 20)

                                                                              • What is the general rule for reading military grid coordinates?
                                                                                 . . . 
                                                                                Right and Up.

                                                                                • How many sights does a compass have?
                                                                                   . . . 
                                                                                  2.

                                                                                  • What is a benchmark?
                                                                                     . . . 
                                                                                    A man-made marker showing points of elevation.
                                                                                    (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 10-3 / PDF 127)

                                                                                    • What are parallels of latitude?
                                                                                       . . . 
                                                                                      Measured distances going north or south of the equator.
                                                                                      (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 4-2 / PDF 25)

                                                                                      • What is an aerial photograph?
                                                                                         . . . 
                                                                                        An aerial photograph is any photograph taken from an airborne vehicle (aircraft, drones, balloons, satellites, and so forth).
                                                                                        (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 8 / PDF 87)

                                                                                        • What does UTM stand for?
                                                                                           . . . 
                                                                                          Universal Transverse Mercator.
                                                                                          (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 4-3 / PDF 34)

                                                                                          • The lensatic compass has a bezel ring; each bezel ring click is equal to how many degrees?
                                                                                             . . . 
                                                                                            3.

                                                                                            • How many times would the bezel ring click if it were fully rotated?
                                                                                               . . . 
                                                                                              120.

                                                                                              • Large cities on a map are represented by what color?
                                                                                                 . . . 
                                                                                                Black.

                                                                                                • Name two ways to orient a map?
                                                                                                   . . . 
                                                                                                  1. Use a compass.
                                                                                                  2. Terrain association.

                                                                                                  • What is the Field Manual for Operational Terms and Graphics?
                                                                                                     . . . 
                                                                                                    FM 1-02.

                                                                                                    • The arrow on a compass always points what direction?
                                                                                                       . . . 
                                                                                                      Magnetic north.

                                                                                                      • What does the term FLOT mean?
                                                                                                         . . . 
                                                                                                        Forward Line of Troops.

                                                                                                        • What are the alternate colors on a map and what do they mean?
                                                                                                           . . . 
                                                                                                          • Gray — alternate color for brown.
                                                                                                          • Yellow — built up areas.
                                                                                                          • Pink — political boundaries.

                                                                                                          • What is longitude?
                                                                                                             . . . 
                                                                                                            Imaginary lines that run north to south originating in Greenwich, England and measured in degrees.
                                                                                                            (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 4-2 / PDF 25)

                                                                                                            • What is a topographic map?
                                                                                                               . . . 
                                                                                                              Terrain and land forms portrayed in a measurable way as well as horizontal features of the positions represented.
                                                                                                              (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 2-6 / PDF 15)

                                                                                                              • What is a small-scale map?
                                                                                                                 . . . 
                                                                                                                Those maps with scales of 1:1,000,000 and smaller are used for general planning and for strategic studies. The standard small-scale map is 1:1,000,000. This map covers a very large land area at the expense of detail.
                                                                                                                (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 2-6 / PDF 14)

                                                                                                                • What is a medium-scale map?
                                                                                                                   . . . 
                                                                                                                  Those maps with scales larger than 1:1,000,000 but smaller than 1:75,000 are used for operational planning. They contain a moderate amount of detail, but terrain analysis is best done with the large-scale maps described below. The standard medium-scale map is 1:250,000. Medium scale maps of 1:100,000 are also frequently encountered.
                                                                                                                  (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 2-6 / PDF 14)

                                                                                                                  • What is a large-scale map?
                                                                                                                     . . . 
                                                                                                                    Those maps with scales of 1:75,000 and larger are used for tactical, administrative, and logistical planning. These are the maps that you as a soldier or junior leader are most likely to encounter. The standard large-scale map is 1:50,000; however, many areas have been mapped at a scale of 1:25,000.
                                                                                                                    (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 2-6 / PDF 14)

                                                                                                                    • What does the term intersection mean?
                                                                                                                       . . . 
                                                                                                                      Finding the location of an unknown point by sighting two or more known points
                                                                                                                      (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 6-7 / PDF 77)

                                                                                                                      • Why is a map so important?
                                                                                                                         . . . 
                                                                                                                        When used correctly, a map can give you accurate distances, locations and heights, best routes key terrain features and cover and concealment information.

                                                                                                                        • What does the term resection mean?
                                                                                                                           . . . 
                                                                                                                          Resection is the method of locating one’s position on a map by determining the grid azimuth to at least two well-defined locations that can be pinpointed on the map.
                                                                                                                          (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 6-8 / PDF 79)

                                                                                                                          • If you find a symbol on a map that is unknown to you, where would you look?
                                                                                                                             . . . 
                                                                                                                            The marginal data, located on the outside lower portion of the map.

                                                                                                                            • How many scales are there on a compass, what are they?
                                                                                                                               . . . 
                                                                                                                              There are two:
                                                                                                                              1. Degrees.
                                                                                                                              2. Mils.

                                                                                                                              • What are the four quadrants on a map?
                                                                                                                                 . . . 
                                                                                                                                1. Northeast.
                                                                                                                                2. Southeast.
                                                                                                                                3. Northwest.
                                                                                                                                4. Southwest.

                                                                                                                                • What are the three elements for a land navigation process known as Dead Reckoning?
                                                                                                                                   . . . 
                                                                                                                                  1. Known starting point.
                                                                                                                                  2. Known distance.
                                                                                                                                  3. Known azimuth.

                                                                                                                                  • What is the feature that makes the lensatic compass work well at night?
                                                                                                                                     . . . 
                                                                                                                                    The dials and needles are luminous.

                                                                                                                                    • What is a polar coordinate?
                                                                                                                                       . . . 
                                                                                                                                      Plotting or locating an unknown point using an azimuth and a distance from a known starting point.

                                                                                                                                      • What is the name of the map system that the U.S. uses?
                                                                                                                                         . . . 
                                                                                                                                        UTM.

                                                                                                                                        • On a lensatic compass there are two rings, an outer black ring and an inner red ring, what are they used for?
                                                                                                                                           . . . 
                                                                                                                                          The inner red ring is used to find degrees, and the outer black ring is used to find mils.

                                                                                                                                          • Name three field expedient methods of determining direction.
                                                                                                                                             . . . 
                                                                                                                                            Shadow-tip method.
                                                                                                                                            Watch method.
                                                                                                                                            North Star method.

                                                                                                                                            • What is a contour level?
                                                                                                                                               . . . 
                                                                                                                                              It is the vertical distance between contour lines. The amount of the contour level is located in the Marginal Information on the map.

                                                                                                                                              • The border line around the edge of the map is called the what?
                                                                                                                                                 . . . 
                                                                                                                                                Neat line.

                                                                                                                                                • Name the different slopes found on a map.
                                                                                                                                                   . . . 
                                                                                                                                                  1. Gentle.
                                                                                                                                                  2. Steep.
                                                                                                                                                  3. Concave.
                                                                                                                                                  4. Convex.
                                                                                                                                                  (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 10-4 / PDF 127)

                                                                                                                                                  • You must find at least how many known locations on a map and the actual ground in order to plot your location accurately?
                                                                                                                                                     . . . 
                                                                                                                                                    At least 2.

                                                                                                                                                    • What are the three main map sizes?
                                                                                                                                                       . . . 
                                                                                                                                                      1. Small.
                                                                                                                                                      2. Medium.
                                                                                                                                                      3. Large.
                                                                                                                                                      (FM 3-25.26 Jan 2005 / 2-6 / PDF 14)

                                                                                                                                                      • What are two methods of measuring an azimuth?
                                                                                                                                                         . . . 
                                                                                                                                                        1. Compass.
                                                                                                                                                        2. Protractor.

                                                                                                                                                        • How close will an eight-digit grid get you to your point?
                                                                                                                                                           . . . 
                                                                                                                                                          10 meters.

                                                                                                                                                          • How close will a six-digit grid coordinate get you to your point?
                                                                                                                                                             . . . 
                                                                                                                                                            100 meters.

                                                                                                                                                            • What would you use on a map to measure actual ground distance?
                                                                                                                                                               . . . 
                                                                                                                                                              The bar scale.

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