SAT Subject Test: U.S. History (Diagnostic)

90 cards
, 450 answers
00:00
May 31, 2016
    This test will probe your mastery of the various U.S. history topics on the SAT Subject Test: U.S. History. Use it to identify areas in which you need to refresh your knowledge. Work quickly on easier questions to leave more time for harder questions, but not so quickly that you make careless errors.

  • Spend no more than one hour on the 90 questions.
    1. The discovery of the New World resulted from the desire of many Europeans to  . . . 
      find an all water route to the East.
      Explanation
      — As a result of the Crusades in the 11th century, the Europeans had been exposed to the goods available in the East. This paved the way for the Renaissance and the Age of Exploration as the European nations sought to find an all-water route to the East. The discovery of the New World was the direct result of these explorations. Many English Puritans came to the New World to be able to worship freely (A), but that occurred over a century after the discovery of the New World. Primogeniture (C) was the medieval practice by which only the firstborn son could inherit the family wealth. As a result, many men came to the New World in search of their own land and fortune. However, the practice of primogeniture could not be ended by the discovery of the New World. Spreading Christianity (D) was a thought in the minds of the early explorers, but was not the main reason for the beginning of the exploration that led to the discovery of the New World. The desire to “civilize” other peoples (E) developed after the discovery of the New World.
      1. uplift and civilize other peoples of the world.
      2. find an all-water route to the East.
      3. spread Christianity around the world.
      4. end the practice of primogeniture.
      5. establish a place where they could practice their religion freely.

    2. Which event was the most important cause of the Nullification Crisis? —  . . . 
      The passage of the 1828 Tariff of Abominations.
      Explanation
      — The Nullification Crisis (1832‚Äì1833) occurred when the South Carolina legislature insisted on its right to declare federal tariff laws “null, void, and no law, nor binding upon this State.” The first and most famous protest by South Carolina was against the Tariff of Abominations (1828). The crisis was one of the most important events of the Jacksonian period. The Force Act (A), which gave the president authority to use military power to enforce the tariff, was one of Jackson’s reactions to the nullification attempt. The debates between Hayne and Webster (B) were about the Nullification Crisis, not its cause. The Compromise Tariff of 1833 (D) was the resolution of the crisis. The Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812 (C), had nothing to do with nullification.
      1. The passage of the Force Act under Andrew Jackson
      2. The passage of the 1828 Tariff of Abominations
      3. The passage of the Compromise Tariff of 1833
      4. The debates between Robert Y. Hayne and Daniel Webster
      5. The Treaty of Ghent after the War of 1812

    3. Why did Stephen Douglas support the idea of Popular Sovereignty when designing the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854? —  . . . 
      It seemed a fair way to resolve a difficult controversy.
      Explanation
      — Popular Sovereignty was a provision placed in the Kansas-Nebraska Act by Stephen Douglas. Douglas was not concerned with the morality of slavery. Popular Sovereignty seemed democratic and fair because it allowed the citizens of the Kansas and Nebraska Territories to decide by voting whether or not to have slavery in their future states. However, it also repealed the Missouri Compromise line, which had excluded slavery in those lands. It did not let Congress decide on slavery (E). It was not a part of the U.S. Constitution for admitting new states (B). The end result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act might have been either (A) or (C), but there were no guarantees and these were not Douglas’s concerns.
      1. It guaranteed that pro-slavery settlers could expand slavery in Kansas.
      2. It seemed a fair way to resolve a difficult controversy.
      3. It guaranteed that “free soilers” could exclude slavery from Kansas and Nebraska.
      4. It was outlined in the Constitution as a method for creating new states.
      5. It let the Congress decide on slavery in the territories.

    4. Which of the following developments is NOT associated with the Gilded Age? —  . . . 
      African Americans’ migration to industrial cities led to “white flight.”
      Explanation
      — All the other choices are important features of the “Gilded Age” (1875‚Äì1900). There was not a large migration of African Americans to Northern cities until the Great Migration of the World War I era; nor was there a substantial “white flight” of middle-class whites out of urban areas until the 1940s and 1950s. The Gilded Age was characterized by highly contentious and sometimes violent clashes between workers and owners (A), such as the Pullman Strike. A host of new inventions (C), such as the telephone, made communication easier. Consolidation and monopolization in business (D) were hallmarks of the era. The era also was known for corruption (E), from the Credit Mobilier scandal to the notorious activities of “Boss” Tweed.
      1. African Americans’ migration to industrial cities led to “white flight.”
      2. Relations between workers and owners became increasingly contentious.
      3. Corruption in politics became more public and widespread.
      4. New inventions made communication between cities easier.
      5. Many industries came to be dominated by a small number of large companies.

    5. The publication of The Jungle contributed to rapid passage of the  . . . 
      Pure Food and Drug Act.
      Explanation
      — The vivid descriptions of meatpacking in Upton Sinclair’s 1906 novel turned many readers’ stomachs. The public wanted some sort of regulation of the industry. Many businesses within the industry itself did not object to the act, as they were eager for the industry to shed its bad image. The novel falls within the category of muckraking, even though it is a fictionalized account. The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 (A) was a response to abuses by the railroads. The Wade-Davis Bill (B) was a plan for Reconstruction that Lincoln refused to sign. The 15th Amendment (D), which gave African American men the right to vote, was also a Reconstruction era action. The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 (E) dealt with trusts and monopoly practices—issues not central to The Jungle.
      1. Clayton Antitrust Act.
      2. Interstate Commerce Act.
      3. 15th Amendment.
      4. Wade-Davis Bill.
      5. Pure Food and Drug Act.

    6. A philosophical basis of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal was the  . . . 
      combination of relief, recovery, and reform.
      Explanation
      — Relief, recovery, and reform were the cornerstones of the New Deal. Roosevelt sought to help people in need survive, stimulate the economy, and change the practices that led to the Depression in the first place. Hoover did not believe in direct government involvement in the lives of the people (A), while Roosevelt was ready to use the power of the government to solve the economic problems of the 1930s. Laissez-faire (B), a French term loosely translated as “allow to do,” meant that there would be little or no government interference in business. This was the direct opposite of FDR’s New Deal. Some believe that the war finally ended the Depression (D), but that was not the basis of the New Deal. Roosevelt made it clear in his Inaugural Address of 1933 that he would take action whether Congress supported him or not (E).
      1. combination of relief, recovery, and reform.
      2. philosophy of Herbert Hoover.
      3. idea that wars end depression.
      4. practice of laissez-faire by the government.
      5. importance of gaining the approval of Congress before he established his programs.

    7. In response to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, the United States  . . . 
      issued a document refusing to recognize Japanese actions as legitimate.
      Explanation
      — Japan’s invasion violated two important treaties designed to protect the “open-door” trading policy with China. The first was the Nine-Power Pact of 1922, which sought “to safeguard the rights and interests of China” and to encourage trade “between China and the other Powers upon the basis of equality of opportunity.” The second was the 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact, which forbade signatories from using “war as an instrument of national policy.” Since President Hoover refused to impose sanctions on Japan, Secretary of State Henry Stimson drafted what became known as the Stimson Doctrine: the U.S. did not “intend to recognize any treaty or agreement” that would “impair the treaty rights of the United States or its citizens in China.” The United States was not a member of the League of Nations (B). General MacArthur (C) was the commander of the Allied troops in the Pacific during World War II, not in 1931. The policy of watchful waiting (D) was associated with Woodrow Wilson and the problems in Mexico, in the 1910s. The U.S. Navy gunboat Panay (E) was fired upon by the Japanese in 1937, resulting in an apology from the Japanese. It was not related to the Manchuria problem.
      1. sent General MacArthur to command U.S. forces in the Pacific.
      2. sent the Panay, a naval vessel, to the coast of Japan.
      3. issued a document refusing to recognize Japanese actions as legitimate.
      4. called a special session of the League of Nations.
      5. engaged in a policy of watchful waiting.

    8. During the years of Lyndon Johnson’s presidency, all of the following were enacted EXCEPT  . . . 
      the Alliance for Progress.
      Explanation
      — The Alliance for Progress was an idea of John F. Kennedy’s. All the other choices describe measures adopted during Lyndon B. Johnson’s presidency.
      1. Medicare.
      2. the Elementary and Secondary Education Act.
      3. Medicaid.
      4. the Alliance for Progress.
      5. the Constitutional Amendment eliminating the poll tax.

    9. For which of the following ideas in the 1970s was Gloria Steinem most noted? —  . . . 
      Women should have equal rights with men.
      Explanation
      — Gloria Steinem, founder of Ms. magazine, fought for the Equal Rights Amendment. In her book Sexual Politics, Kate Millett analyzed patriarchal views of sexual relations in various literary works. Convincing men to participate in housework (B), though an important idea, was not central to the women’s rights movement. Black and white equality in the workplace (C), a Civil Rights idea that Steinem supported, was not her principal cause. Concern about pesticides (E) is associated with environmentalists like Rachel Carson.
      1. Women should convince men to help with the housework.
      2. Sex has political aspects, which can be seen in literary works by writers such as D. H. Lawrence and Norman Mailer.
      3. The use of pesticides was harming the environment.
      4. Blacks and whites should have equality in the workplace.
      5. Women should have equal rights with men.

    10. An example of the change in U.S. policy toward Vietnam since the end of the Vietnam War was best demonstrated by  . . . 
      visits and trade talks conducted by Bill Clinton with Vietnamese leaders.
      Explanation
      — Bill Clinton, who was criticized for not serving in Vietnam, normalized relations with that nation more than 25 years after the war had ended. In 1994, Clinton announced that the trade embargo against Vietnam was repealed, and the following year he established diplomatic relations between the two countries. Also, in 1995, Secretary of State Warren Christopher paid the first official visit by a U.S. secretary of state, and Clinton himself visited Vietnam at the end of his second term. George H. W. Bush did not increase aid to North Vietnam (A). In fact, North Vietnam no longer existed as a separate entity after the Vietnam War ended. No trade restrictions (B) were placed on Vietnam by George W. Bush. Richard Nixon was responsible for ending the war in Vietnam (C) through a program of “Vietnamization,” giving more responsibility for the war to the South Vietnamese. However, when the American troops were withdrawn, South Vietnam fell to the North. Under Nixon, there was no recognition of that government as being the legitimate government of Vietnam. Jimmy Carter was critical of the actions of the Vietnamese government (D), a policy that represented no fundamental change in the continuing American dissatisfaction with the Vietnamese government after the Vietnam War.
      1. visits and trade talks conducted by Bill Clinton with Vietnamese leaders.
      2. criticism of Vietnam for its human rights violations by Jimmy Carter.
      3. recognition of the Vietnamese government by Richard Nixon.
      4. trade restrictions placed on Vietnam by George W. Bush.
      5. increased aid given to North Vietnam by George H. W. Bush.

    11. The New England colonists seemed to thrive in the early years of colonization as compared to the Southern colonists. The longer life spans and the overall growth of the population in New England have been attributed to the  . . . 
      strong religious beliefs and the family units with which they traveled to the New World.
      Explanation
      — The New England colonists lived longer and thrived in the harsh climate of New England. This has been attributed to their strong religious beliefs and the communities that supported these beliefs. Also, many New Englanders came to the New World with their families, which contributed to population growth through reproduction. Early Southern colonists were predominantly male, so reproduction was limited. New Englanders did participate in trade with Europe (A), but so did Virginians. This would not cause New Englanders to succeed more than Southerners. There were slaves and indentured servants in New England (B). There were fewer slaves in New England, but this has no bearing on overall population growth or longevity. Both (D) and (E) are false. There was a far higher proportion of single men among the Southern colonists, as they came without their families (D), and the climate of New England (E) was harsh and cold, while the climate in the South was more moderate.
      1. participation of New Englanders in transatlantic trade.
      2. lack of slavery and indentured servitude in New England.
      3. strong religious beliefs and the family units with which they traveled to the New World.
      4. temperate climate of New England.
      5. larger number of single men in the New England colonies.

    12. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 was significant because it  . . . 
      prohibited the extension of slavery into the Northwest Territory.
      Explanation
      — The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 established a guideline for the settlement of the Ohio Valley. One of its provisions was the prohibition of slavery in this territory. It also provided that no less than three or more than five states were to be formed in this territory. British control of the Northwest Territory (A) ended with the Revolutionary War in 1783. The Missouri Compromise established the 36° 30’ (C) as the demarcation point between slave and free states. The Ordinance encouraged peaceful relations with Native Americans (D), but these were never achieved. The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850) settled the border between Canada and the United States (E) in the Great Lakes region.
      1. secured peaceful relations between the colonists and the Native Americans.
      2. ended British control of the Ohio Valley.
      3. prohibited the extension of slavery into the Northwest Territory.
      4. settled a dispute over the location of the boundary between Canada and the United States.
      5. prevented slavery north of the 36˚ 30’ north latitude line.

    13. In the 1829 Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World, David Walker called for  . . . 
      the immediate abolition of slavery and, if necessary, for slaves to kill their masters.
      Explanation
      — Born in North Carolina, David Walker was a free black who moved to Boston and befriended black activists who fought against slavery. His Appeal caused a furor among Southern slave owners because it argued that they were more “cruel and barbarous” than any other slaveholders in world history. Walker also encouraged slaves to rebel against their owners, to “kill or be killed.” He was opposed to gradual abolition as too slow a process (A) and to colonization (B) because the Declaration of Independence said, “all men are created equal.” He was an American, he reasoned, who should be equal to other Americans, not separate from them (E). He was for immediate abolition; he was not willing to wait until the government was ready (D).
      1. the immediate abolition of slavery and, if necessary, for slaves to kill their masters.
      2. a return to Africa for all African Americans.
      3. a separate state for freed people to live in.
      4. slaves to wait until the time was right to ask the U.S. government for emancipation.
      5. the gradual abolition of slavery.

    14. Which of the following is an important reason the South lost the Civil War? —  . . . 
      Slaves ran away, so there were fewer and fewer hands to do the work on the home front.
      Explanation
      — Slaves were no longer doing the work, and the Southern economy suffered for it. Running away was an act of war. The one supply the South did have was guns (A). The consensus among historians is that the Confederate generals were better (C). Some cotton was getting through (D) because the blockade was not effective. The dedication of white Southerners to their cause (E) was legendary.
      1. The issues of slavery and states’ rights were not important to the majority of Southerners.
      2. The South did not have enough guns to prevent the Union from overpowering it.
      3. The South was unable to ship any cotton because the Union blockade was so effective.
      4. The Union generals were better military men, so they continually out-maneuvered the Southern forces.
      5. Slaves ran away, so there were fewer and fewer hands to do the work on the home front.

    15. Which of the following best expresses the point of view of the above cartoon? —  . . . 
      Nativists who opposed allowing immigrants into the country were hypocrites because they themselves had humble, foreign origins.
      Explanation
      — The people holding up their hands to stop immigration are comfortable or even affluent. In the shadows are their former, poorer, selves. The well-to-do individuals are demonstrating their hypocrisy by forgetting that they too had been poor immigrants. All the other choices were ideas held by some individuals during the Gilded Age. Choices (A), (B), and (E) are anti-immigrant sentiments. Choice (D) represents a pro-immigration point of view, but it does not represent the specific viewpoint of the cartoonist.

      1. Immigration contributed to the cultural diversity of the United States.
      2. The government should enact restrictions on the number of immigrants allowed in the United States because immigrants were lazy and immoral.
      3. Nativists who opposed allowing immigrants into the country were hypocrites because they themselves had humble, foreign origins.
      4. The United States should avoid getting involved in foreign conflicts because it would then feel obliged to accept refugees from these conflicts.
      5. The working class and the poor had good reason to oppose immigration to the United States because new immigrants would compete with them for jobs.

    16. One reason Woodrow Wilson was able to win the presidency in 1912 was that  . . . 
      there was a major split in the Republican Party.
      Explanation
      — Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party, also called the Bull Moose Party, in 1912 when he lost the Republican nomination to the incumbent President Howard Taft. Taft’s manipulation of the convention, as well as his conservative policies, had convinced Roosevelt and his allies to form a third party. Roosevelt did quite well at the polls, getting more votes and more electoral votes than Taft, but the split in the Republican Party allowed Democrat Woodrow Wilson to win the race with just 42 percent of the popular vote. World War I did not start until 1914 (A). African Americans (B) did not abandon the party of Lincoln until 1936, when they overwhelmingly supported the Democratic president, Franklin D. Roosevelt. Wilson was not of humble origins (C); he was the son of a minister and went to Princeton and Johns Hopkins. Neither of his opponents died before the election (E).
      1. his opponent died two weeks before the election.
      2. there was a major split in the Republican Party.
      3. Wilson’s humble origins endeared him to working-class Americans.
      4. a majority of African Americans voted for the Democratic Party.
      5. Americans rallied around him during World War I.

    17. Which of the following best describes the differences that existed between the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) in the 1930s? —  . . . 
      The AFL was more cautious in its approach to conflicts with management, while the CIO was willing to use more militant tactics, such as the sit-down strike.
      Explanation
      — The two umbrella groups for labor unions had radically different approaches to union organizing. The AFL was the older, more conservative union, focusing mainly on skilled workers. The CIO was more brash and militant. It organized assembly line workers and skilled workers into the same unions. Both had large memberships in the 1930s (A). There was no significant East Coast/West Coast division (B) between the two unions. A “company union” (D) is an organization established by management, supposedly to deal with worker grievances; both the AFL and CIO were made up of legitimate unions, organized by workers. The AFL was not dominated by Communist Party members (E). The Communist Party played a greater role in the CIO in the 1930s than it did in the AFL.
      1. The AFL had its strength east of the Mississippi River, while the CIO was strongest west of the Mississippi.
      2. The AFL was actually a coalition of “company unions,” organized by management to placate worker resentment, while the CIO was composed of actual worker organizations.
      3. The AFL had a huge membership, while the CIO never developed a mass following.
      4. The AFL was more cautious in its approach to conflicts with management, while the CIO was willing to use more militant tactics, such as the sit-down strike.
      5. The AFL was dominated by Communist Party members, while the CIO, fearing government reprisals, excluded Communists from leadership positions.

    18. In the “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” Martin Luther King Jr. discussed the “strangely irrational notion that there is something in the flow of time that inevitably cures all ills. We must come to see that human progress never rolls on the wheels of inevitability.”

      Which of the following represents the main idea of the above excerpt? —  . . . 
      We must act now.
      Explanation
      — The quote refers to the relationship between time and action. King said the request that the movement wait “almost always means never.” Time is neutral according to King. If people don’t act, nothing good will happen. Martin Luther King wrote the “Letter from Birmingham Jail” in 1963 during the drive to desegregate the city. The quote is not a discussion of nonviolence, although King was an advocate of social change through nonviolent means (A). King did plead for action from white moderates (B), who were more concerned about calm than justice. He believed that all humanity was connected (D) and that it was morally right (E) to break the segregation laws because they were unjust. However, the ideas in (B), (D), and (E) do not refer to the central idea of the quote.
      1. Breaking unjust laws is justified.
      2. The white moderates are obstacles to our victory.
      3. We must act now.
      4. Injustice must be eradicated everywhere.
      5. Nonviolence is the key to success for the civil rights movement.

    19. The women’s movement that emerged in the 1970s was called the second wave of feminism because it  . . . 
      built on the women’s movement of the 19th century.
      Explanation
      — The Seneca Falls Declaration (1848); the great speeches of Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1848–1902); and the works of Susan B. Anthony, Lucretia Mott, and Harriet Tubman (all 19th-century thinkers and activists) were part of the first wave on which the feminism of the 1970s was based. Simone de Beauvoir (A) was the author of the groundbreaking Second Sex (1950). There was only a small women’s movement in the 1930s (C), and the women’s movement in America was the precursor of the European movement (D). Kate Millet’s famous book (E) is Sexual Politics (1970).
      1. took inspiration from the women’s movement in Europe.
      2. took its name from the title of a book by Simone de Beauvoir.
      3. built on the women’s movement of the 19th century.
      4. built on the women’s movement of the 1930s.
      5. took its name from the title of a book by Kate Millett.

    20. Ronald Reagan was called the “Teflon president” because he  . . . 
      was never held responsible for the failures of his administration.
      Explanation
      — Teflon is a nonstick substance used on frying pans. Some of Reagan’s detractors called him the “Teflon president” because he was never held accountable for any of the failures of his administration. In other words, he was the Teflon president because nothing stuck to him. Reagan was known as The Great Communicator (A) because he connected with his audiences, but that is not a characteristic of Teflon. One of Reagan’s most effective rhetorical devices was telling stories (B), which he often embellished, therefore blurring fact and fiction. He had an endearing grandfatherly demeanor, and his popularity remained very high during most of his administration, but he was not always in control (C). He depended heavily on the advice of others (E).
      1. did not need special handling.
      2. always had everything under control.
      3. was the Great Communicator.
      4. was never held responsible for the failures of his administration.
      5. told the truth without embellishment.

    21. Rhode Island and the Massachusetts Bay Colony differed in that Rhode Island  . . . 
      practiced a policy of separation of church and state.
      Explanation
      — Roger Williams, the founder of Rhode Island, had been banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony because he disagreed with the government-supported church established there. He believed in the separation of church and state. It was Massachusetts that was a theocracy (A), not Rhode Island. Massachusetts was a royal colony (B), while Rhode Island was a self-governing colony. All groups, including Quakers, enjoyed religious freedom (C) in Rhode Island. Both colonies were located in New England (E).
      1. was a royal colony.
      2. was located in New England.
      3. was a theocracy.
      4. lacked religious freedom.
      5. practiced a policy of separation of church and state.

    22. The First and Second Great Awakenings were similar in that both  . . . 
      made use of revivals to attempt to convert the sinful.
      Explanation
      — The First and Second Great Awakenings were characterized by large-scale revival meetings. The Puritans opposed the Catholic and Anglican use of incense (B). It was the Quakers who had long periods of silence (C), not the evangelicals of the Second Great Awakening nor the fiery preachers of the First Great Awakening. Both Great Awakenings were international phenomena (D), not purely American. Developed in the 17th and 18th centuries, deism (E) proposes that the existence of God, who created the universe and then left it to function alone, can be proven by reason and nature alone, not by supernatural manifestation.
      1. were purely American phenomena.
      2. encouraged long periods of silence during services so that the congregation felt the spirit of God.
      3. made use of revivals to attempt to convert the sinful.
      4. employed deistic approaches to religious belief.
      5. enforced the Puritan use of incense.

    23. The implied powers clause of the U.S. Constitution was used to justify the  . . . 
      establishment of the Bank of the United States in 1791.
      Explanation
      — The implied powers are embodied in the elastic clause in the Constitution in Article I Section 8. It provides that Congress can make laws that are “necessary and proper” to carry out its delegated powers. This clause was used by Hamilton to justify the establishment of the Bank of the United States and then by Thomas Jefferson when he purchased the Louisiana Territory. The Whiskey Rebellion (A) was suppressed when Washington used his powers as commander in chief to quell an uprising of Pennsylvania farmers. The Bill of Rights (B), the first ten amendments, was adopted according the ratification procedures specified in the Constitution. Jay’s Treaty (C) was ratified by the Senate as outlined in the Constitution. The Constitution empowers Congress to establish a system of courts (D). The elastic clause, therefore, was not required to justify the passage of the Judiciary Act of 1789.
      1. establishment of the Bank of the United States in 1791.
      2. addition of the Bill of Rights to the Constitution in 1791.
      3. suppression of the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794.
      4. passage of the Judiciary Act of 1789.
      5. signing of Jay’s Treaty with England in 1794.

    24. The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments are similar in that all three  . . . 
      expanded the rights of African Americans.
      Explanation
      — The 13th Amendment abolished slavery; the 14th Amendment extended citizenship right to African Americans and guaranteed all people “equal protection under the law,” as well as due process; and the 15th Amendment gave African American men the right to vote. The 15th Amendment is the only one of the three that specifically addressed the issue of voting rights (A). The amendments are all from the Reconstruction era, not the Civil War (B). The Republican Party (D) supported all three amendments. The amendments did not protect the rights of property holders (E). The 13th Amendment actually deprived slave owners of their “property.”
      1. protected the rights of property holders.
      2. expanded the rights of African Americans.
      3. were ratified despite opposition from the Republican Party.
      4. extended voting to different groups in the United States.
      5. were ratified during the Civil War.

    25. Which of the following statements is consistent with the data in the graphs above and with trends in American history from 1865 to 1900? —  . . . 
      Mechanization led to a glut of corn on the market and to reduced prices per bushel.
      Explanation
      — Mechanization was a double-edged sword for farmers. It increased output, but with so much corn and wheat on the market, prices fell. Farmers then had difficulty paying back the loans that they had taken out to buy the new equipment. The graph shows a decrease in prices, which did not benefit farmers (A). In addition, between 1865 and 1900 the federal government both maintained the gold standard for currency and kept the same amount of money in circulation, which led to deflation, not inflation (D). General Sherman’s march to the sea (B) destroyed infrastructure in Georgia, but corn was produced in the Midwestern states. Though the Radical Republicans advocated giving freed men and women “40 acres and a mule” (C), the government never implemented the policy.

      1. Mechanization greatly benefited farmers, as output of corn nearly tripled between 1865 and 1900.
      2. The Radical Republicans’ policy of giving freedmen 40 acres and a mule during Reconstruction led to excessive corn production.
      3. Mechanization led to a glut of corn on the market and to reduced prices per bushel.
      4. General Sherman’s march to the sea during the Civil War destroyed farming equipment, which led to a decline in corn prices after 1865.
      5. The inflationary policies of the government between 1865 and 1900 did not benefit farmers.

    26. Wilson’s idea of a “peace without victory” failed to become a reality in the Treaty of Versailles because  . . . 
      England and France wanted Germany to pay for starting the war.
      Explanation
      — The Triple Entente, led by France and Great Britain, demanded that Germany pay reparations for the tremendous loss of life and property that had been experienced by the European nations during World War I. Wilson’s conciliatory approach under the Fourteen Points (with the exception of the League of Nations) was largely rejected at Versailles. The Triple Entente held Germany totally responsible for World War I (A), although these nations shared much of the blame for that war. Wilson pursued his policies with great vigor and optimism (C) at the negotiations, but he was unable to convince Lloyd George and Georges Clemenceau to construct a framework for a democratic peace. The League of Nations was established (D) by the Treaty of Versailles, but the U.S. Senate rejected the Treaty and the League of Nations. Germany was not part of the negotiations at Versailles (E).
      1. Wilson failed to pursue his ideas actively during the negotiations for the treaty.
      2. the League of Nations was not established.
      3. Germany refused to take part in the negotiations.
      4. the Triple Alliance was totally responsible for the events leading to World War I.
      5. England and France wanted Germany to pay for starting the war.

    27. The use of the atomic bomb by the United States in 1945 was significant in that it  . . . 
      hastened the end of World War II.
      Explanation
      — Soon after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan signed the peace treaty that ended World War II. Truman won the election of 1948 (B). The United Nations was established after World War II but not as a result of the bombings (C). The computer age began in the 1960s with space exploration (D). The problems over establishing peace, which developed between the democracies of the United States and Europe and the totalitarian government under the Soviet Union, were the fundamental causes of the Cold War (E).
      1. caused the defeat of Harry Truman in the election of 1948.
      2. led to the formation of the United Nations.
      3. hastened the end of World War II.
      4. ushered in the computer age.
      5. was the direct cause of the Cold War.

    28. Which of the following is a central argument of the 1958 book, The Affluent Society, by John Kenneth Galbraith? —  . . . 
      American society was ignoring social goods in the pursuit of private material gain.
      Explanation
      — Galbraith worried in The Affluent Society that America was too focused on individual material gain and not enough on social betterment. Statement (A) is a conservative, laissez-faire position; Galbraith, who was considered a liberal, did not support this view. Statement (B) would better describe another 1950s book, The Power Elite, by C. Wright Mills. The Communist Party might advocate a Soviet-style command economy (C), but this was not Galbraith’s position. The position of the 19th-century Populists is described in statement (D).
      1. The key to economic growth is government noninterference in the economy.
      2. American society was ignoring social goods in the pursuit of private material gain.
      3. A small group of wealthy and influential Americans had managed to gain control of both the economy and the government.
      4. A Soviet-style command economy would best meet the needs of the majority of Americans.
      5. The United States should reinvigorate its agricultural sector with heavy subsidies to farmers and high tariffs on imported agricultural products.

    29. All of the following Cold War ideas involved Europe EXCEPT  . . . 
      the domino theory.
      Explanation
      — The domino theory of Eisenhower and Kennedy stated that Communism would spread like falling dominoes—a theory that originated as a description of the spread of Communism in Southeast Asia. Containment (D), George R. Kennan’s 1947 idea, was the policy of attempting to stop Soviet expansion. The Truman Doctrine (A) was a 1948 Cold War philosophy that America should support free (non-Communist) peoples; it was developed in response to the situation in Greece. Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) (C) refers to the situation beginning in the 1950s in which the nuclear peace was maintained because both the United States and the USSR were scared by the realization that the use of nuclear weapons would result in a massive nuclear retaliation. Détente (E) was Nixon’s overture to the USSR to reduce arms and develop more cordial relations (1972–1974).
      1. Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD).
      2. détente.
      3. the domino theory.
      4. containment.
      5. the Truman Doctrine.

    30. The election of Barack Obama as president was significant for all of these reasons EXCEPT that  . . . 
      he was the youngest president ever elected.
      Explanation
      — Though Theodore Roosevelt, at age 42, was the youngest man ever to assume the presidency, he did so after the assassination of William McKinley and thus was not voted in. The youngest person ever elected president was John F. Kennedy, who was 43. Barack Obama was 47 when he won the election. All of the other answers—(A), (C), (D), and (E)—are reasons why Obama’s election was significant.
      1. he was the first African American ever elected.
      2. it was the first time a sitting senator had defeated another sitting senator.
      3. he was the first candidate to utilize the full power of the Internet.
      4. he was the first senator to win an election since John F. Kennedy.
      5. he was the youngest president ever elected.

    31. As a result of the French and Indian War, the American colonists developed a  . . . 
      greater sense of self-confidence.
      Explanation
      — The Americans developed a greater self-confidence after fighting the French and Indian War. They realized that the British were not invincible. Fighting together, the Americans of the 13 colonies also realized that they had much in common and shared many ideas. Hostility against the Indians (A) did not begin with the French and Indian War, although the acquisition of new territory led to Pontiac’s Rebellion. The Americans lost respect (C) for the British as a result of the war. The Americans were still happy to depend on Britain for protection and, therefore, were not interested in building a strong army (D). However, the colonists’ need for protection diminished because the French threat had been removed. There was no desire on the part of the Americans to ally with the Spanish (E), although the Americans did want the use of the Mississippi. After the French and Indian War, Spain dominated Mississippi River shipping by virtue of its control of New Orleans (and the land west of the Mississippi).
      1. greater sense of self-confidence.
      2. greater respect for the British.
      3. hostile attitude toward the Indians.
      4. desire to ally with Spain.
      5. desire to create a strong army.

    32. The beginnings of a uniquely American culture in the 1700s were seen in  . . . 
      the works of artists and poets like John Trumbull and Phillis Wheatley.
      Explanation
      — The French and Indian War (A) took place from 1754 to 1763. John Trumbull was a painter who lived during the late 1700s and painted portraits of Hamilton, Jay, and Washington. Phillis Wheatley, an African slave, was a poet of the same period. Their works were evidence of the beginnings of a distinctly American culture. John Locke’s views (B) influenced American leaders, including Thomas Jefferson, who incorporated much of Locke’s thought in the Declaration of Independence. Locke, however, was an Englishman, not an American. Transcendentalism (C) was a movement that took place in the 1830s and refers to a belief that people have an inner light that could help them find the truth. The “Star-Spangled Banner” (E) was written by Francis Scott Key during the War of 1812.
      1. the success of the American generals who fought in the French and Indian War.
      2. the works of artists and poets like John Trumbull and Phillis Wheatley.
      3. John Locke’s views regarding human rights.
      4. the development of the belief in transcendentalism.
      5. the writing of the “Star-Spangled Banner” by Francis Scott Key.

    33. The constitutionality of the Bank of the United States was upheld in the Supreme Court decision in the case of  . . . 
      McCulloch v. Maryland.
      Explanation
      — The decision of McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), which dealt with the Bank of the United States and upheld its constitutionality, established that the states could not nullify actions taken by the federal government. Stating that the “power to tax is the power to destroy,” Marshall upheld the right of the national government to establish the Bank of the United States. Marbury v. Madison (1803) established the right of the Supreme Court to exercise judicial review (B). This case resulted from the Midnight Appointments under the administration of John Adams. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) established the doctrine of separate but equal when it came to racial matters (C). The Dred Scott Case (1857) established the idea that slaves were property, inflaming the abolitionist’s cause (D). Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka reversed the Plessy decision, stating that separate but equal was “inherently unequal” (E).
      1. Dred Scott v. Sanford.
      2. McCulloch v. Maryland.
      3. Marbury v. Madison.
      4. Plessy v. Ferguson.
      5. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka.

    34. To which sections would the Wilmot Proviso have applied in the map above? —  . . . 
      L and N
      Explanation
      — L and N are correct because they describe the Mexican Cession. The Wilmot Proviso (1846) stated that “there shall be no slavery or involuntary servitude in any territory from Mexico.” The so-called Mexican Cession was won in the Mexican War; it included California and the whole Southwest and Mountain West, excluding the Oregon Territory. The United States paid Mexico $15 as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848). The other choices include territory from the Louisiana Purchase (O), the Oregon Territory (M), or the Eastern states (P); none of these were part of the Mexican Cession.

      1. L and N
      2. M and N
      3. L and M
      4. O and N
      5. P and O

    35. An unintended consequence of the implementation of the 1862 Homestead Act was that  . . . 
      much of the land that was intended for homesteading ended up in the hands of large agricultural firms.
      Explanation
      — The small entrepreneur was gradually replaced by larger and larger entities—a story that is true of mining and many other American businesses as well. The program was fairly popular, making (A) incorrect. As a whole, the land of the Great Plains, where most homesteads were established, was (and is) incredibly fertile (C). While clashes no doubt occurred (D), the homesteaders usually settled on land that no longer had large Native American populations. There was no large public scandal in regard to the Homestead Act (E), and the land was not sold by the government; it was given away after the recipient paid a filing fee.
      1. very few people volunteered to participate in the program.
      2. the homesteaders often had clashes with Native Americans.
      3. the land that was involved in the program was incapable of producing crops.
      4. much of the land that was intended for homesteading ended up in the hands of large agricultural firms.
      5. corrupt politicians sold the best land to speculators.

    36. Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst were similar in that both were  . . . 
      publishers who owned newspapers, which sensationalized accounts of events.
      Explanation
      — Despite the fact that excellent newspapers receive Pulitzer Prizes today, Pulitzer himself and his competitor, William Randolph Hearst, were associated with sensationalistic “yellow journalism.” Such journalism is seen as a contributing factor to the United States declaring war on Spain in the Spanish-American War, making (C) incorrect. Progressive era journalists, such as Lincoln Steffens and Ida Tarbell, were considered muckrakers (A). An important public moralizer (B) in the 19th century was Anthony Comstock, founder of the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice. Important anti-imperialists of the late 19th and early 20th century were Carl Schurz and Mark Twain (C). The immigrant, foreign-language press has been vibrant in America from the mid-19th century until the present day—but it was not Pulitzer and Hearst’s field (E).
      1. moralizing commentators who chastised the public for their vices.
      2. publishers who owned newspapers, which sensationalized accounts of events.
      3. writers of non-English newspapers that appealed to recently arrived immigrants.
      4. anti-imperialist editorial writers who pushed the United States in an isolationist direction.
      5. muckraking journalists who wrote articles that exposed government corruption.

    37. There were protests against the “Palmer Raids” of the late 1910s and early 1920s on the grounds that they  . . . 
      violated protections against unwarranted search and seizure.
      Explanation
      — The Justice Department conducted a series of raids on the homes of suspected radicals and socialists and of the offices of radical organizations. These raids were carried out without search warrants, in violation of the 4th Amendment. The raids were coordinated by Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. The Palmer Raids involved both men and women (B) and did not target churches (A), Native Americans (E), or African Americans (D). The most obvious discrimination against African Americans during this period was caused by Jim Crow laws, which resulted in the separation of the races.
      1. blurred the separation of church and state.
      2. discriminated against women.
      3. failed to protect the rights of Native Americans.
      4. discriminated against African Americans.
      5. violated protections against unwarranted search and seizure.

    38. Which of the following was the reason the Supreme Court decided that prayers could not be required in public schools? —  . . . 
      Prayer in public schools violated the 1st Amendment.
      Explanation
      — The 1st Amendment prohibits Congress from establishing an official religion (the so-called “establishment clause”). In Engel v. Vitale, the Supreme Court ruled that “it is no part of the business of government to compose official prayers‚Ķ.” The establishment clause is the basis for a separation of church and state. The other choices, whether valid or not, would not come before a court of law for resolution.
      1. Prayer in public schools would lead to a renewal of religious tests for public office.
      2. Americans no longer considered prayer to be important in their lives.
      3. Church membership had declined.
      4. Atheism had spread throughout American society.
      5. Prayer in public schools violated the 1st Amendment.

    39. The main purpose of the Free Speech Movement of 1964 was to  . . . 
      allow college students to support civil rights and political causes.
      Explanation
      — The Free Speech Movement of 1964 at the University of California at Berkeley began as a defense of students who had set up tables for off-campus political organizations on university grounds. The administration attempted to prevent the students from disseminating literature. They were not workers (A) or free speech advocates in the larger society (B). Rock-and-roll lyrics (C) were not censored until the 1980s. Radio programming (D) did not become an issue until the late 1960s.
      1. allow college students to support civil rights and political causes.
      2. change radio programming.
      3. make unions more democratic and give workers more power.
      4. remove the censorship from rock-and-roll lyrics.
      5. support the American Civil Liberties Union.

    40. The high gasoline prices that occurred during the administration of Jimmy Carter caused  . . . 
      inflation because prices were rising and the value of the dollar was falling.
      Explanation
      — A definition of inflation is “rising prices.” First, prices go up; then that causes the value of the dollar to go down, because it takes more money to buy the same goods. Deflation means a fall in prices and an increase in the value of the dollar (A). There wasn’t a depression in the late 1970s (C). Stagnation (of the economy) does not occur when employment is high (D). The value of the dollar decreases when prices are high—the opposite of what (E) suggests.
      1. a rise in the value of the dollar because the prices were so high.
      2. inflation because prices were rising and the value of the dollar was falling.
      3. stagnation because employment was so high.
      4. depression because the bottom fell out of the stock market.
      5. deflation because the value of the dollar was falling.

    41. The fact that Spain, rather than its rival, Portugal, was the dominant power in the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries was largely the result of the  . . . 
      Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in 1494.
      Explanation
      — The Treaty of Tordesillas, signed by Spain and Portugal in 1495, divided the non-European world between Spain and Portugal. Thus, Spain was then free to explore the Western Hemisphere without Portuguese interference—except the coast of Brazil, which fell into the Portuguese half of the world. The Portuguese had developed the caravel, a faster sailing ship than those possessed by the Spanish (A). Spanish settlers (B) did not come in large numbers to the New World. Although Christopher Columbus “discovered” the New World, his actions, by themselves, were not very successful in establishing Spain in the New World (D) and only encouraged competitors from other nations to join the search for an all-water route to the Far East. The wealth accumulated by the Spanish crown (E) was the result, not the cause, of Spanish domination of most of the New World.
      1. success of Christopher Columbus in the New World.
      2. large treasury that had been accumulated by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella.
      3. fact that Spanish ships were faster than Portuguese ships.
      4. large numbers of Spanish settlers who arrived in the New World.
      5. Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in 1494.

    42. The creation of the Electoral College and the indirect election of senators demonstrates that the framers of the Constitution were concerned with the  . . . 
      excesses of democracy.
      Explanation
      — A fear of mobocracy, or excesses in democracy, led the framers of the Constitution to create an indirect process of electing the president through the establishment of the Electoral College. In addition, while the House of Representatives was directly elected by the people, the Senate was to be elected by the state legislatures, placing the Senate out of the direct hands of the people. The 17th Amendment to the Constitution, adopted in 1913, provided for the direct election of U.S. senators by the people. Choices (A), (B), and (C) were not concerns that led to the establishment of the Electoral College or the indirect election of senators. The framers were interested in protecting the rights of the minority, in this case, the aristocrats, from the excesses of democracy and were less interested in protecting the rights of the majority (E).
      1. problems created by weak state governments.
      2. need to protect the rights of the majority.
      3. excesses of democracy.
      4. effects of a strong central government.
      5. possibility of corruption in the election process.

    43. The Northwest Ordinance and the Missouri Compromise of 1820 were similar in that both documents  . . . 
      restricted slavery in areas yet to be admitted as states.
      Explanation
      — Both the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 and the Missouri Compromise of 1820 restricted slavery in areas yet to be admitted as states. The Northwest Ordinance forbade slavery in the Northwest Territory, while the Missouri Compromise forbade slavery north of the 36° 30’ line of north latitude across the Louisiana Purchase. The Northwest Ordinance provided that no less than three or more than five states were to be created in that territory, but the Missouri Compromise contained no such guidelines (A). The Missouri Compromise provided for the admission of Maine as a free state and Missouri as a slave state, but no new states were admitted to the Union by the Northwest Ordinance (B). Land for public schools was set aside by the Land Ordinance of 1785 and mentioned in the Northwest Ordinance, but the Missouri Compromise does not discuss this issue (C). The Northwest Ordinance provided for fair treatment of the Native American population, while the Missouri Compromise does not address this issue (D).
      1. established public schools in new territories.
      2. admitted new states into the Union.
      3. restricted slavery in areas yet to be admitted as states.
      4. set guidelines on the number of new states to be established.
      5. provided for the fair treatment of the Native American population.

    44. “The owner fed us regular on good food just like you would a good horse if you had one.” —An escaped slave (explaining why he ran away)

      This quotation reflects the ex-slave’s belief that  . . . 
      he should be treated as more than a piece of property.
      Explanation
      — The escaped slave ran away because he considered himself a person, not a piece of property. His former owner treated him like a good horse, not like a human. He was obviously not happy (C) or satisfied (E) as a slave, or he wouldn’t have risked his life to run away. The fact that he ran away makes it quite clear that he did not consider his master “good” (A) and that he did not believe the owner took proper care of his slaves (D).
      1. he should be treated as more than a piece of property.
      2. he was always satisfied as a slave.
      3. his owner took proper care of his slaves.
      4. the slave owner was a good master.
      5. if slaves are treated well, they will be happy.

    45. Which of the following quotes comes from Abraham Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address of March 1861? —  . . . 
      “You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors.”
      Explanation
      — Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address took place before the fighting of the Civil War started. Lincoln was trying his best to avoid war. He tried to convince the South that they could have peace, if they didn’t attack. Statement (A) is from the Lincoln-Douglas debates, and (B) is from Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address. The quote in (C) is from Daniel Webster’s Second Reply to Hayne, and (E) is from Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address.
      1. “With malice toward none and charity for all.”
      2. “Government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth.”
      3. “You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors.”
      4. “Liberty and union, now and forever, one and inseparable.”
      5. “A house divided against itself cannot stand.”

    46. Most of the prominent labor battles of the late 19th century, such as the Railroad Strike of 1877 and the Pullman Strike of 1894, occurred in the aftermath of  . . . 
      wage cuts.
      Explanation
      — A pattern emerged in the Gilded Age of employers cutting wages and workers rebelling. This occurred with the Railroad Strike of 1877 and Pullman Strike of 1894. Deadly accidents (B) certainly occurred in the 19th century, as did speedups (C), but neither sparked major labor battle. The government’s recognition of workers’ rights to organize unions (A) did not come until the Wagner Act, which was passed in 1935. The CIO (E) wasn’t formed until 1936.
      1. deadly accidents.
      2. the formation of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO).
      3. production speedups.
      4. wage cuts.
      5. government recognition of workers’ right to organize unions.

    47. After Spain’s defeat in the Spanish-American War in 1898, the Philippines  . . . 
      fought against the United States to gain independence but became a U.S. colony.
      Explanation
      — The United States would not relinquish control of the Philippines after the Spanish-American War. In response, Filipinos waged an unsuccessful war for independence. President McKinley argued that he was helping a people not yet ready for self-government, but having a toehold in Asia and its markets probably also entered into the calculations. The Philippines continued to exist as a political entity (B), albeit as a U.S. colony, and did not become independent (A) until 1946. Spain had little influence in the area after relinquishing control of the Philippines as a result of the Spanish-American War (D). Eastern European countries, not the Philippines, became satellites of the Soviet Union following World War II (E).
      1. became an independent republic with a democratic constitution.
      2. stayed within the strategic orbit of Spain.
      3. became the first satellite nation of the Soviet Union.
      4. ceased to exist as a political entity, becoming a string of independent islands.
      5. fought against the United States to gain independence but became a U.S. colony.

    48. Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. DuBois differed in their approaches to addressing discrimination against African Americans. Which statement below best represents Washington’s position? —  . . . 
      “The best way for African Americans to improve their position in society is to gain vocational training to obtain jobs in agriculture, crafts, and manufacturing.”
      Explanation
      — Washington insisted that African Americans accommodate themselves to existing society by learning farming and manual skills. He was challenged by the more radical DuBois, who advocated resistance to racist practices. It was Marcus Garvey who attracted a following in the late 1910s and 1920s with his affirmation of racial pride and the “back to Africa” movement (A). Martin Luther King Jr. is closely identified with the nonviolent civil disobedience movement of the 1950s and 1960s, which sought to end racial segregation (C). Choice (D) incorporates a famous phrase by Malcolm X. Choice (E) might represent the viewpoint of many contemporary African American politicians.
      1. “African Americans should engage in nonviolent civil disobedience to put pressure on the federal government to end discriminatory practices.”
      2. “African Americans could best achieve their goals by running candidates for public office to vote out those who discriminate against them in state and federal government.”
      3. “The best way for African Americans to improve their position in society is to gain vocational training to obtain jobs in agriculture, crafts, and manufacturing.”
      4. “African Americans should pursue equality ‘by any means necessary,’ including violence in self-defense.”
      5. “Since racial integration is not possible in the United States, African Americans should go back to Africa.”

    49. President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal programs, which were designed to end the Great Depression,  . . . 
      had a limited effect on ending the Depression.
      Explanation
      — Economic figures show that problems of unemployment and production only ended upon the entry of the United States into WWII. The New Deal had some positive effect early on but seemed less effective later. The economic figures show a decrease in unemployment from 24 percent to 14 percent by 1937, but they do not show an end to significant unemployment (A) until the outbreak of WWII. The problems in Europe and the attack by the Japanese on Pearl Harbor (C), not New Deal programs, led the United States into WWII. The Supreme Court was not supportive (D) of all the New Deal legislation and declared the Agricultural Adjustment Act and the National Recovery Act unconstitutional. This led to FDR’s attempt to pack the Court. The Federal Reserve System (E) was established in 1913 under the Administration of Woodrow Wilson.
      1. led to the establishment of the Federal Reserve System.
      2. were strongly supported by the Supreme Court.
      3. led the United States into World War II.
      4. had a limited effect on ending the Depression.
      5. were overwhelmingly effective in ending unemployment.

    50. The Supreme Court’s decision in the case of Roe v. Wade was based on  . . . 
      the right to privacy.
      Explanation
      — In Roe v. Wade (1972), the Supreme Court, under Nixon’s appointee Warren Burger, decided that abortion was protected by the Constitution on the basis of a woman’s right to privacy, derived from the due process clause of the 14th Amendment. The other rights were not involved in the Roe case. Freedom of the press (A) was involved in the Pentagon Papers case; habeas corpus (B) is used in death penalty cases to obtain a new trial. Executive privilege (C) was used by President Richard Nixon to attempt to prevent handing the Watergate tapes to the special prosecutor, and the right of eminent domain (E) allows a government to take over land when it sees fit.
      1. the right of habeas corpus.
      2. freedom of the press.
      3. executive privilege.
      4. eminent domain.
      5. the right to privacy.

    51. The adoption of the Barbados Slave Codes by South Carolina in 1696 resulted in  . . . 
      the development of chattel slavery in the colonies, which centered on race.
      Explanation
      — The Barbados Slave Codes were passed by the British to control the slaves in the West Indies. They were harsh and gave the masters total control over slaves, who were described as racially inferior. When South Carolina adopted the Barbados Slave Codes in 1696, it provided a legal basis for chattel slavery (the use of slaves as property) based upon race. The Barbados Slave Codes did not affect indentured servitude (A). Abolition (B) was not a part of a slave code that legalized slavery. Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676 (D) occurred in Virginia and led to an increase in the number of African American, not Indian, slaves. The paternalistic attitude (E) of the South toward the slaves was most widely used to justify the continuation of slavery after the 1830s.
      1. the development of chattel slavery in the colonies, which centered on race.
      2. the development of the abolition movement in the North.
      3. an increased number of indentured servants.
      4. Bacon’s Rebellion.
      5. the development of a paternalistic view of slavery in South Carolina.

    52. Which of the following was one of the main legal objections that the colonists made to Parliament in regard to the Stamp Act? —  . . . 
      It was a direct tax on the colonists.
      Explanation
      — The fact that the Stamp Act imposed direct taxes on the colonists was a key source of widespread indignation—second only to the fury provoked by “taxation without representation.” In 1767, Parliament passed the Townshend Acts (which were indirect taxes) in an attempt to get around the direct tax argument. Stamps were required for many items used by the colonists, but that wasn’t their legal objection (A). In 1765, the idea of coercion by the king was not the main objection (B). Explicit coercion did not come until 1766 in the Declaratory Act. The Stamp Act did not restrict colonial trade (D), and the fees were not unreasonably high (E).
      1. It was a direct tax on the colonists.
      2. It restricted colonial trade.
      3. It constituted an attempt to coerce the colonists to obey the crown.
      4. It placed extremely high taxes on colonial goods.
      5. It taxed too many items used by the colonists in their daily lives.

    53. President Washington’s actions in the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794 demonstrated the power of the central government to  . . . 
      enforce the laws of the land.
      Explanation
      — When President Washington used military force to quash the Whiskey Rebellion, he demonstrated the ability of the central government to enforce law and collect taxes. Suspension of habeas corpus, which would allow the government to imprison a person without informing him or her of the charges, was not an issue in the Whiskey Rebellion (A). Washington’s actions did not interfere with the sale or consumption of whiskey (C). There was no attempt by the government to control the production of whiskey (D). The government had placed a tax on whiskey and did offer to subsidize grain producers, but the key question in Washington’s actions concerned the ability of the government to collect taxes and enforce the law (E).
      1. subsidize the production of grain used to make whiskey.
      2. enforce the laws of the land.
      3. prohibit the sale and consumption of liquor.
      4. suspend habeas corpus in times of extreme danger.
      5. control the production of whiskey.

    54. “Pompey, how do I look?”
      “Mighty massa, mighty.”
      “What do you mean mighty, Pompey?”
      “Why massa you look noble.”
      “What do you mean by ‘noble’?”
      “Why you look just like one lion.”
      “Now Pompey, where have you ever seen a lion?”
      “I saw one down in yonder field the other day.”
      “Pompey, you foolish fellow, that was a jackass.”
      “Was it massa? Well, you look just like him.”

      Who would be most likely to have related this dialogue to whom? —  . . . 
      A slave mother to her son
      Explanation
      — Slave mothers tried to boost the confidence of their children and keep them entertained at the same time. If you can figure out how to fool your master or have fun at his expense, it gives you some psychological space of your own. This little dialogue shows how clever slaves could be. Many blacks were familiar with these kinds of things, but it took the Civil Rights Movement to bring material like this into mainstream history teaching. Here, the slave tricks his master by using the knowledge that the master thinks he (the slave) is stupid. A slave holder (A) or white overseer (B; E) would be unlikely to recount a story making fun of them and their race. The same holds true for a Confederate schoolboy (D). (Confederate schoolboys were white, since slaves could not attend school.)
      1. A slave mother to her son
      2. A white overseer to his son
      3. A white overseer to another white overseer
      4. A Confederate schoolboy to his friends
      5. A slaveholder to his son

    55. President Andrew Johnson’s Reconstruction plan called for the former Confederate states to  . . . 
      endorse the 13th Amendment, which abolished slavery.
      Explanation
      — The 13th Amendment abolished slavery, which was as far as Johnson wanted to go. By the end of the Civil War, everyone realized that slavery was a thing of the past; consequently, the amendment abolishing it (C) was not seen as a radical step. All the other actions—the Civil Rights Act (A), the Freedman’s Bureau (B), the arrest of Confederates (D), and voting rights for African Americans (E) are more radical steps, which Johnson opposed.
      1. guarantee that the freedmen would attain the right to vote.
      2. endorse the 13th Amendment, which abolished slavery.
      3. arrest all the men who served in the Confederate government.
      4. pass the Civil Rights Act.
      5. support the Freedman’s Bureau.

    56. During the Gilded Age, the U.S. economy  . . . 
      grew at a rapid pace, but the gap between the wealthy and poor widened.
      Explanation
      — During the era, the slums of New York’s Lower East Side existed just a few miles from the lavish mansions of Fifth Avenue. This gap between rich and poor characterized the era. The Gilded Age saw a great deal of economic growth, as the United States produced massive amounts of manufactured goods for both domestic and foreign consumption. The country carried out the transition from wartime production to civilian production quite successfully, making (A) incorrect. There was no “back-to-the-land movement” during the Gilded Age (C); in fact, many rural people moved to the city to work in industry. By the Gilded Age, slavery and the slave trade had been abolished (D). High tariffs and isolationist policies were characteristics of the 1920s (E).
      1. grew at a rapid pace, but the gap between the wealthy and poor widened.
      2. faltered because industries failed to convert from wartime production to peacetime production after the Civil War.
      3. suffered because of the nation’s overdependence on the slave trade.
      4. was characterized by a growing agricultural sector and a back-to-the-land movement.
      5. was cut off from the world economic system due to high tariffs and isolationist policies.

    57. “Blue laws,” supported by the Republican Party in many states during the Gilded Age,  . . . 
      made illegal certain activities that were seen by some as immoral.
      Explanation
      — These activities included gambling and drinking on Sundays. The Democratic Party, with its support among working-class and immigrant city dwellers, tended to oppose “blue laws.” Child labor (A) was challenged by the 1916 Keating-Owen Act, which was declared unconstitutional in 1918. Child labor was outlawed by the 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act. Mandating that producers honestly portray the contents of their products (B) was a result of the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act. The Agricultural Adjustment Act (1933) provided price supports for farmers (C), and the Pendleton Act (1881) reformed civil service procedures (D).
      1. made illegal certain activities that were seen by some as immoral.
      2. provided price supports for struggling farmers.
      3. reformed civil service procedures.
      4. mandated that producers honestly portray the contents of their products.
      5. regulated the number of hours children could work.

    58. Which of the following is NOT a reason for the growth of the Communist Party in the United States in the 1930s? —  . . . 
      The Communist Party’s espionage work on behalf of the Soviet Union created an aura of dedication and audacity.
      Explanation
      — The Communist Party did engage in spying on the United States for the Soviet Union, but this could not be considered a cause of its growth. This espionage was not known to the public or even to most members of the Communist Party. If the public had known of this activity, it would certainly have disillusioned most would-be sympathizers. The Alger Hiss case of the later 1940s and the Ethel and Julius Rosenberg case of the early 1950s drove many people from the party, although loyalists claimed that the defendants were innocent. Choices (A), (B), (C), and (E) are all accurate descriptions of the appeal that the Communist Party held for different people.
      1. The large number of Eastern European immigrants who had supported communism back home gravitated toward the Communist Party in the United States.
      2. The Communist Party’s espionage work on behalf of the Soviet Union created an aura of dedication and audacity.
      3. The Communist Party tapped into many people’s doubts about the efficacy of the capitalist system during the Great Depression.
      4. The Communist Party’s work on behalf of African Americans, as is evident in the Scottsboro case, won it many adherents.
      5. The Communist Party, as part of its Popular Front strategy, avoided talk of impending revolution and advocated forming alliances with anti-fascist liberals.

    59. The most important impetus behind the emergence of the modern Civil Rights Movement was  . . . 
      the experience of African Americans in World War II.
      Explanation
      — Blacks were shocked when they came back after beating the Nazis and still faced discrimination giving great impetus to the call for Civil Rights. The 1963 March on Washington (C) and the 1961 Freedom Rides (E) were too late to have started the movement. The founding of the NAACP (A) in 1911 occurred long before the movement. Lynchings (B) were a constant threat from the earliest days of the colonies.
      1. the experience of African Americans in World War II.
      2. lynching.
      3. the Freedom Rides.
      4. the founding of the NAACP.
      5. the March on Washington.

    60. In his farewell address, President Dwight D. Eisenhower  . . . 
      warned the nation of the power of the military-industrial complex.
      Explanation
      — Eisenhower warned that the power of the “military-industrial complex” was growing virtually unchecked. Arms manufacturers and the military establishment posed a danger, he said, to freedom and democracy. “Entangling alliances” (A) is a phrase from Washington’s farewell address. Environmental questions (B) did not become national political concerns until 1970. Eisenhower turned against Senator McCarthy in 1954 (C). Illicit drugs (D) did not become a major political issue until the 1960s and 1970s.
      1. warned the nation of the power of the military-industrial complex.
      2. advocated that the government wage a war on illicit drugs.
      3. castigated Joseph McCarthy for his excessive zeal.
      4. predicted that environmental issues would become more important in the nation’s future.
      5. urged future administrations to avoid entanglements with European powers.

    61. The French and Indian War, which ended in 1763, greatly affected the American colonists because it  . . . 
      removed the French threat against the colonists.
      Explanation
      — The Treaty of Paris ending the French and Indian War removed the French presence from North America. This allowed the colonists to depend less heavily on the British for their defense. The colonists desired to settle in areas west, not east, of the Appalachian Mountains (B). However, the British government restricted such settlement by the Proclamation of 1763, which forbade colonists to settle west of the Appalachians. The colonists resented the Proclamation and ignored the king’s directive. The end of the French and Indian War marked an end to salutary neglect (C) and a beginning of greater involvement by the British in the American colonies, which contributed to the colonists’ increased resentment against the British. The threat from the Native Americans still existed on the frontier (D). Britain continued its mercantilist policies toward the colonists (E). However, the American colonists’ increasing resentment of the British attempts to enforce this policy contributed to the War for Independence.
      1. removed the French threat against the colonists.
      2. marked the end of mercantilism.
      3. resulted in the expansion of the colonies east of the Appalachian Mountains.
      4. removed the Indian threat from the frontier settlements.
      5. marked the beginning of the British policy of salutary neglect in the colonies.

    62. Tensions between England and the United States grew between 1790 and 1812 for all of the following reasons EXCEPT the  . . . 
      XYZ Affair.
      Explanation
      — The XYZ Affair, which took place in 1797 during the administration of John Adams, resulted in American agitation for war against France but did not raise tensions with Britain. The British engaged in impressment of U.S. seamen (A) until the War of 1812. The British continually incited the Indians to violence against the Americans after the Revolutionary War (B). Despite the Treaty of Paris in 1783, the British had not removed their forces from the Ohio Valley (C). In the Treaty of Paris of 1783, the Americans had agreed only to encourage the states to return land seized from the Loyalists during the Revolutionary War (E).
      1. British incitement to violence of the Indian population on the frontier.
      2. British military occupation in the Ohio Valley.
      3. impressment of U.S. seamen into British service.
      4. XYZ Affair.
      5. Americans’ continued holding of Loyalists’ lands.

    63. The most important result of the development of interchangeable parts in the early 19th century was that it allowed  . . . 
      manufacturers to make their assembly lines more efficient.
      Explanation
      — Interchangeable parts were machine-made parts for guns or other manufactured devices that could be put together without further work. This enabled workers to assemble mass-produced goods more easily. Printers (A) had had moveable type since the 16th century. Farmers (B) did not directly use interchangeable parts, because they were not manufacturing products. Safe toys (D) are not necessarily the result of mass production. The demand for coopers’ skills in making barrels (E) declined, as mass production of metal barrels replaced wooden ones.
      1. children to have safer toys.
      2. farmers to harvest crops more easily.
      3. printers to make newspapers more easily.
      4. manufacturers to make their assembly lines more efficient.
      5. coopers to cut staves in their barrels more precisely.

    64. The Compromise of 1850 included all of the following EXCEPT  . . . 
      postponing a decision on the question of slavery in the California territory.
      Explanation
      — California was admitted as a free state in the compromise. All other choices were part of the compromise. The other important parts were (A) the Fugitive Slave Law and (E) leaving the status of Utah to be resolved in the future. The 1850 Compromise put off the major questions, but it did prevent war for 10 years.
      1. permission to continue slavery but not slave auctions in Washington, D.C.
      2. postponing a decision on the question of slavery in the California territory.
      3. resolution of the Texas-New Mexico border dispute.
      4. postponing a decision on the question of slavery in the Utah territory.
      5. a strengthened Fugitive Slave Law.

    65. An important result of the impeachment crisis of 1868 was that  . . . 
      power shifted in the government from President Andrew Johnson to Congress.
      Explanation
      — Johnson was virtually silenced after the impeachment process; he was further weakened by the midterm election of 1866, in which the Republicans received an overwhelming mandate. The Senate failed to remove him from office by one vote (A), but he successfully ran for the Senate five years later. The Radicals in Congress implemented their plan without much interference from Johnson after 1866 (C). There has been only one other presidential impeachment after Johnson’s—President Bill Clinton’s in 1998 (D). There was no major rewriting of the impeachment rules after 1866 (E).
      1. impeachment rules were rewritten to preclude another politically motivated impeachment.
      2. impeachment proceedings motivated by political differences became common in subsequent years.
      3. President Andrew Johnson was removed from office.
      4. power shifted in the government from President Andrew Johnson to Congress.
      5. President Andrew Johnson was able to defeat the Radicals’ plan for Reconstruction.

    66. To remedy problems American farmers faced in the last quarter of the 19th century, the Populist Party advocated a policy of  . . . 
      increasing the amount of currency in circulation.
      Explanation
      — A solution that the farmers’ organizations, the Grangers, the Greenback Party, and the Populist Party proposed was putting more money into circulation so that inflation would occur and it would be easier for farmers to repay their debts. Inflation would not be curbed (E); rather, it would push up the prices they received for their crops. The most widely circulated suggestion was to back up currency with silver at a ratio of 16 parts of silver to one of gold. Farmers’ organizations would not support an increase in interest rates (B), as they had to take out loans to purchase equipment and seeds. Farmers have generally supported tariffs on agricultural imports (C), but this was not the main plank of the Populist Party. Urban resettlement (D) was of no interest to the Populists.
      1. raising interest rates on bank loans.
      2. raising tariffs to keep foreign agricultural products out of the United States.
      3. helping farmers resettle in urban areas.
      4. increasing the amount of currency in circulation.
      5. curbing inflation.

    67. The reasons for the United States’ entry into World War I included the goal of  . . . 
      protecting freedom of the seas.
      Explanation
      — The announcement that Germany would resume unrestricted submarine warfare led the United States into World War I. The use of submarines impaired shipping and travel and, thus, violated the principle of freedom of the seas. The United States did not wish to destroy Germany or its people (A). Although World War I has been called the “Great Parade” (B), the involvement of the United States in this war was not motivated by a desire to participate in it. The protection of United States’ interests in the Far East (C) was more relevant to World War II. The focus of World War I for the United States was in Europe. The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in 1941 (E).
      1. organizing a “Great Parade” for freedom.
      2. retaliating for the attack on the United States by Japan.
      3. protecting U.S. interests in the Far East.
      4. protecting freedom of the seas.
      5. destroying Germany and its people.

    68. After World War II, NATO was formed primarily to  . . . 
      stop the spread of Communism in Europe.
      Explanation
      — NATO was a defensive alliance designed to halt Soviet expansion in Europe after World War II. The United States and 11 Western European nations joined NATO, which stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Immediately after WWII, there was no attempt to aid emerging nations in Asia (A) or to help Latin America (C). It was the Marshall Plan, not NATO, that brought economic aid to Europe (D). The United States was not concerned with fascism in Africa (E).
      1. assist emerging nations in Asia.
      2. halt the growth of fascism in southern Africa.
      3. promote democratic reforms in Latin America.
      4. provide economic aid to war-torn nations in Europe.
      5. stop the spread of Communism in Europe.

    69. The 1954, Vietnam peace negotiations in Geneva provided for all of the following EXCEPT  . . . 
      a U.S. role in the future of Vietnam.
      Explanation
      — There was no mention of an official U.S. role in Vietnam in the Geneva Accords, although they initiated a new stage of U.S. imperialism in the area. The 1954 agreement removed the French as a political force in Vietnam (B), divided Vietnam (D) and scheduled elections in 1956 (A). The United States, which did not sign the Geneva Accords, helped prevent the 1956 elections from being held because the Communist leader, Ho Chi Minh, who was given control of North Vietnam, was sure to win (E).
      1. elections in 1956.
      2. the temporary division of Vietnam into North and South.
      3. the elimination of a French presence in Vietnam.
      4. a U.S. role in the future of Vietnam.
      5. political power for the Communist Party in Vietnam.

    70. In the “smoking gun” tape, Richard Nixon discussed the possibility of asking the Central Intelligence Agency to stop the Federal Bureau of Investigation from investigating Watergate matters. In the language of the Articles of Impeachment against Nixon, this charge became  . . . 
      obstruction of justice.
      Explanation
      — The “smoking gun” tape showed obstruction of justice because Nixon was trying to stop an investigation into wrongdoing. The Articles of Impeachment passed by the House Judiciary Committee were Obstruction of Justice (interfering with the investigation), Abuse of Power (“dirty tricks”), and the Defiance of Subpoenas (refusal to hand over the tapes). Breaking and entering (A) was a “dirty trick” and an abuse of power, but this was not part of the “smoking gun” tape. Taping people without their knowledge (B) and firing the special prosecutor (C) were not the “high crimes or misdemeanors” required by the Constitution to impeach a president. Lying to the American people (E) is not a crime.
      1. lying to the American people.
      2. breaking and entering.
      3. obstruction of justice.
      4. firing the special prosecutor.
      5. taping people without their knowledge.

    71. According to John Adams, “The Revolution was effected before the war commenced.” By this he meant  . . . 
      the colonists in America had developed a unique character, independent of Great Britain, before the actual revolution took place.
      Explanation
      — By 1776, the colonists had developed a perception of themselves and the world that was quite different from that of their British brethren. This famous quote of John Adams was written many years after the Revolutionary War and expresses his view that the development of a distinctly American identity was the real American Revolution and underlying reason for the war for independence from Britain. Although answer choices (A) and (C) state reasons for the colonists’ rebellion, these do not express the basic idea of the John Adams quote. Salutary neglect (D) was a British—not an American—policy toward its North American colonies in the 1600s and 1700s. By this policy, the British passed laws supporting the system of mercantilism but did not enforce them strictly. John Adams understood that the years of geographical separation from England and the British policy of salutary neglect had allowed the colonies to develop independently of Britain and contributed to the development of an American identity, but the John Adams quote is not specifically about salutary neglect. Statement (E) is a correct statement about the war, but it does not reflect the idea expressed by John Adams in this quotation.
      1. the Battle of Lexington and Concord had taken place before the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
      2. the American Revolution was the result of the American policy of salutary neglect.
      3. the American colonists had reached a point in their development in which a separation from England was necessary.
      4. taxation without representation was the real issue that led to the Revolutionary War in 1776.
      5. the colonists in America had developed a unique character, independent of Great Britain, before the actual revolution took place.

    72. The “Era of Good Feeling” can best be characterized as years of  . . . 
      economic growth within the United States.
      Explanation
      — The Era of Good Feeling commonly refers to the years of the Monroe Administration, 1816–1824. It was marked by economic growth and improvements in the infrastructure. Despite the appearances of “good feelings,” there was no harmony on the issue of slavery (D), and controversy arose over the admission of Missouri as a slave state. Americans focused on issues within the country as opposed to the outside world, and the United States was not very involved in world affairs (A). Tariffs were not lowered during this period (C); in fact, the American System, proposed by Henry Clay, supported the idea of a raising tariff rates to encourage the development of American industry. After the Hartford Convention in 1814, the Federalists (E) steadily lost power.
      1. political control of the government by the Federalist Party.
      2. harmony over the issue of slavery.
      3. economic growth within the United States.
      4. lower tariffs on imported goods.
      5. active participation by the United States in world affairs.

    73. The accusation of a “corrupt bargain” in the election of 1824 was significant because  . . . 
      it led to the overwhelming election of Andrew Jackson in 1828.
      Explanation
      — In the election of 1824, no candidate had a majority of the electoral votes, but Andrew Jackson had more popular votes than anyone else, even though it was not a majority. In the House of Representatives, Henry Clay threw his support to John Quincy Adams, making Adams president. When Adams subsequently appointed Clay to the position of Secretary of State, Jackson accused Adams, of making a “corrupt bargain” to gain the votes of Clay’s supporters in the House. Jackson used this accusation against Adams, and this contributed to his landslide victory in 1828. The spoils system (A) of Jackson’s administration did not begin until 1828 when Jackson was elected. The “corrupt bargain” was not an agreement between Adams, and Jackson (B). No candidate received the majority (D) of the popular or electoral vote in 1824. Henry Clay (E) continued to be a leading statesman despite the accusation.
      1. it marked the beginning of the spoils system in the administration of Andrew Jackson.
      2. John Quincy Adams had a majority of the popular vote but not a majority of the electoral vote.
      3. it was a cross-party agreement between Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams.
      4. it led to the overwhelming election of Andrew Jackson in 1828.
      5. it led to the political demise of Henry Clay.

    74. “I stood alone on that wild prairie. Looking westward I saw my husband driving slowly over the plain[.] [T]urning my face once more to the east, my dear sister’s footsteps were fast widening the distance between us. For the time I knew not which way to go, nor whom to follow. But in a few moments I rallied my forces .. and soon overtook the slowly moving men who were bearing my husband and child over the prairie.”

      Which of the following statements is NOT true of the above excerpt from the diary of a woman beginning her journey to the West? —  . . . 
      It shows how irrationally indecisive some people were.
      Explanation
      — This diary entry doesn’t provide the usual concept we think about in regard to the exciting Oregon Trail. (“Westward Ho!” is the slogan that usually springs to mind.) After the 1960s, historians began looking at the experiences of ordinary people by reading their diaries and letters and looking at church records. This passage shows the fear (D) that men and women experienced going west. The woman who is quoted was torn between her sister and all she knew in the East and her husband, who wanted to go west. She clearly hesitated about whether to follow, indicating that it might have been his ambition but not hers (B). This is a description of the pioneer spirit because she gathered her forces and joined her husband and child (A; E). Her indecision was not irrational; there was a real conflict for her (C).
      1. It shows that the wife ultimately chose her husband and child over her sister.
      2. It describes a conflict between a husband and wife about going west.
      3. It reflects the pioneer spirit.
      4. It shows how irrationally indecisive some people were.
      5. It describes the fear of going into the unknown.

    75. The effect of Jim Crow laws, passed by Southern states after the Reconstruction period, was  . . . 
      racial segregation in public facilities.
      Explanation
      — Jim Crow laws created separate public facilities for African Americans. These included separate schools, water fountains, and waiting rooms at bus and train stations. The facilities were not equal, but such laws stood until the 1950s and 1960s. Stricter voting requirements (A) came about as a result of literacy tests or poll taxes. African Americans were not considered citizens (B) as a result of the Dred Scott v. Sanford decision (1857). The economic activities of whites and African Americans were tightly linked (C), with African Americans performing domestic and manual labor for whites. The shift of African American voters from the Republican Party to the Democratic Party (D) did not occur until 1936.
      1. a shift in African American loyalties from the Republican Party to the Democratic Party.
      2. the loss of citizenship for many African Americans.
      3. racial segregation in public facilities.
      4. stricter voting requirements for African Americans.
      5. separate economies—one run by and for whites and one run by and for African Americans.

    76. Why did the Ghost Dance movement thrive among Native Americans in the 1880s? —  . . . 
      Many Native Americans believed that it would protect them in conflicts with whites.
      Explanation
      — The ritualistic dance honoring Native American ancestors, known as the Ghost Dance, became a rallying point for Native Americans in their battles against U.S. forces. As such, the United States banned the practice. Native communities did not draw large numbers of tourists in the 19th century (B). The Ghost Dance was not a rain dance (C). There is not much evidence of youthful resistance to the leadership of elders among Native Americans before the 20th century (D). Native American culture has not received recognition or respect in mainstream American society today and certainly did not in the 19th century (E).
      1. Many Native Americans believed that it would protect them in conflicts with whites.
      2. Many Native Americans believed it would end a severe drought.
      3. It became a popular tourist attraction.
      4. It was a way for a younger generation of Native Americans to resist the authority of their elders.
      5. Native American culture was finally given respect and recognition in mainstream American culture.

    77. Senator Henry Teller agreed to vote for a declaration of war against Spain in 1898 only on the condition that  . . . 
      Cuba would be granted its independence if the United States defeated Spain.
      Explanation
      — Teller’s concerns led to the Teller Amendment, which guaranteed Cuban independence if the United States defeated Spain in the Spanish-American War. Many Americans did not want to duplicate the imperial policies of the European powers, but they could support helping Cuba gain its independence from Spain. Anti-imperialists argued that the United States should give up overseas possessions (B), but not Teller. As a result of its victory in the Spanish-American War, the United States took control of Puerto Rico and the Philippines but not Cuba (C). The conditions involved Cuba, not domestic policy (D). African Americans did fight in Cuba, but racially integrated units (E) were not used in the U.S. military until the very end of World War II.
      1. Cuba would be granted its independence if the United States defeated Spain.
      2. racially integrated units would be used in the war.
      3. the United States would give up all claims to overseas possessions.
      4. President McKinley would initiate a progressive domestic agenda.
      5. all of Spain’s possessions would become U.S. possessions if the United States won the war.

    78. Henry Ford’s financial success can be attributed to all of the following EXCEPT  . . . 
      retaining skilled European craftsmen and mechanics at his factories to ensure quality.
      Explanation
      — Ford’s policies virtually eliminated the need for skilled craftsmen and mechanics at his factory. The most important achievement was bringing the assembly line to automobile manufacturing (A). Ford created well-built, inexpensive cars that were within the reach of most incomes (B). The “five-dollar day” (C) was, in part, an attempt to encourage people to work for Ford despite the repetitive, boring nature of the assembly line. Ford was a follower of Taylor’s time-motion studies (E), designed to create an efficient manufacturing system. All of these techniques had the result of “de-skilling” the workplace.
      1. attracting workers to his work force by paying them $5 per day.
      2. reducing the price of a Model T from $850 to $300.
      3. creating efficient work processes, based on the ideas of Frederick Winslow Taylor.
      4. using an assembly line to produce an automobile every 93 minutes.
      5. retaining skilled European craftsmen and mechanics at his factories to ensure quality.

    79. All of the following increased participation in the political process in the 20th century EXCEPT the  . . . 
      14th Amendment, granting civil rights to freedmen and women.
      Explanation
      — The 14th Amendment was passed in 1868 and had little effect in increasing political participation in the 20th century. The 19th Amendment (A), ratified in 1920, increased political participation by allowing women to vote. The 17th Amendment (B), ratified in 1913, increased political participation by allowing the voters to elect directly U.S. senators. The Voting Rights Act (D), passed in 1965, was specifically aimed at ending obstructions previously raised against African American voters in the South. Referendum acts (A), which allowed citizens to vote on ballot questions, were 20th-century measures passed in the Progressive Era.
      1. 17th Amendment, providing for the direct election of U.S. senators.
      2. 14th Amendment, granting civil rights to freedmen and women.
      3. passage of state referendum acts.
      4. Voting Rights Act of 1965.
      5. 19th Amendment, giving women the right to vote.

    80. Which of the following organizations advocated carrying guns for self-defense? —  . . . 
      Black Panther Party
      Explanation
      — The Black Panther Party was an explicitly revolutionary socialist organization that advocated carrying guns for self-defense. The Congress of Racial Equality (B) and the National Association for the Advancement for Colored People (C) were explicitly nonviolent, while Students for a Democratic Society (A) and the Vietnam Day Committee (E) had no policy on guns. The most famous image of the Black Panthers is a photograph of a group of Panthers standing with rifles on the steps of the California legislature.
      1. Congress of Racial Equality
      2. Students for a Democratic Society
      3. Vietnam Day Committee
      4. Black Panther Party
      5. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

    81. Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry objected to the proposed Constitution in 1787 because they felt that the Constitution would  . . . 
      undermine the principles for which the Revolutionary War was fought.
      Explanation
      — Patrick Henry and other Anti-Federalists viewed the Constitution as a dangerous document that did not fully support the idea of popular rule. They believed that the framers of the Constitution, the Federalists, had compromised the principles for which the Revolutionary War had been fought. They feared the Constitution would restrict democracy (B), not expand it. This debate was not about slavery; in fact, Patrick Henry supported slavery (C). Henry attacked the Constitution because it took power away from the states (D) and he feared that the president might become a king (E).
      1. support states’ rights.
      2. create a weak executive.
      3. undermine the principles for which the Revolutionary War was fought.
      4. create too much democracy.
      5. support slavery.

    82. I. “The Kansas-Nebraska Act authorizes the further extension of slavery and we have, do now, and will continue to protest most emphatically against … slavery.” (1854)

      II. “The territories were the common property of the several states. As a joint agent of the states, Congress has no power to deny the citizens of any state the right to take their property into a territory … Therefore, slavery is legal in the territories. If Wilmot carries, woe, woe I say to the union.” (1850)

      III. “We beg the slave owners to pause before they proceed further to disturb the peace we had hoped the Compromise of 1850 would have made perpetual.” (1854)

      Which of the above statement(s) would John C. Calhoun have supported? —  . . . 
      II
      Explanation
      — John C. Calhoun, after writing the South Carolina Exposition and Protest against the “Tariff of Abominations” in 1827, became one of the most prominent leaders of the South. He was strongly pro-slavery and would have supported speaker II. Speaker I opposes slavery in the West, which Calhoun supported. Speaker III is in favor of the Compromise of 1850, which Calhoun opposed. Calhoun had died by the end of 1850.
      1. I and III
      2. I
      3. III
      4. II
      5. II and III

    83. Which of the following provisions would NOT be found in the various Black Codes passed after the Civil War? —  . . . 
      A requirement that African Americans serve in the state National Guard units for two years
      Explanation
      — While serving in the National Guard for two years might seem like an onerous burden, white Southerners did not want to arm the African American population of the South to protect whites. All the other provisions were part of the Black Codes. The overall effect of the Black Codes was to put African Americans in a secondary position in Southern society and to maintain the economic status quo. In fact, they tried to keep the African Americans as close to slavery as possible.
      1. A ban on African Americans serving on juries
      2. A requirement that African Americans serve in the state National Guard units for two years
      3. A ban on African Americans carrying weapons
      4. A requirement that African Americans attain a permit if they wished to travel
      5. A prohibition on interracial marriages

    84. The federal government helped with the building of the transcontinental railroad by  . . . 
      providing the railroad companies with land grants.
      Explanation
      — The railroads received large swaths of land out West. The rationale was that this was a way to entice the railroads to do something that would benefit the entire public. This procedure amounted to a big giveaway of public lands to wealthy corporations. Choices (A), (B), and (C) did not occur. Of these, choice (B) is the least logical—free enterprise was the rule in the 19th century. The Interstate Commerce Commission (E) was established to regulate abusive railroad practices, not to help railroad companies build.
      1. organizing a publicly owned railroad company.
      2. setting up the Interstate Commerce Commission to oversee the project.
      3. providing the railroad companies with free iron and steel.
      4. raising the tariff to fund the project.
      5. providing the railroad companies with land grants.

    85. The Treaty of Paris, which concluded the Spanish-American War in 1898, contained all of the following provisions EXCEPT that  . . . 
      Spain cede the Hawaiian Islands to the United States.
      Explanation
      — The United States obtained the Hawaiian Islands in 1898, but this had nothing to do with the Spanish American War and the Treaty of Paris. All the other choices were important provisions of the treaty. Puerto Rico (A) and Guam (D) are still U.S. possessions. The Philippines (C) fought for its independence from the United States following the Spanish-American War but lost. It was granted independence in 1946, although the United States exerted influence there afterward. Cuba was granted its independence after the Spanish-American War (E) as a result of the Teller Amendment to the U.S. declaration of war.
      1. Spain cede the Hawaiian Islands to the United States.
      2. Cuba be granted its independence.
      3. Spain cede Puerto Rico to the United States.
      4. the United States agree to pay $20 million to Spain for the Philippines.
      5. Guam become a U.S. territory.

    86. Which of the following was a reason the Democratic Party failed to win the presidency in the 1920s? —  . . . 
      Internal splits existed between urban moderates and rural conservatives.
      Explanation
      — An important issue that split the rural and urban factions of the Democratic Party in the 1920s was Prohibition. The rift within the Democratic Party reflected tensions within society during the 1920s. The Democratic Party of the 1920s was not opposed to Jim Crow Laws (A). It had supported U.S. participation in World War I (C)—after all, Wilson was a Democrat. The Depression did not begin until the very end of the 1920s (D). Both parties were friendly to big business in the 1920s (E).
      1. It had opposed U.S. involvement in World War I.
      2. Internal splits existed between urban moderates and rural conservatives.
      3. Voters perceived that the party was overly friendly to big business.
      4. Its opposition to Jim Crow laws alienated Southern voters.
      5. Voters saw the party as responsible for the Great Depression.

    87. Herbert Hoover’s idea of “rugged individualism” suggested that  . . . 
      people were able to survive hard times through their inner strength and resources.
      Explanation
      — Hoover believed that people could survive the worst of times by helping themselves and helping their communities. He did not believe that it was the role of government to give direct aid to people in hard times (B). Hoover did not believe that the government was solely responsible for the basic needs of the people (C); he believed that these were the responsibility of individuals. The idea that exceptional men must rise to power during difficult times (D) is more akin to fascism than it is to Hoover’s ideas. The idea of a government partnership with the people, particularly in regard to the economy (E), was not an idea embraced by Hoover and is not representative of the idea of “rugged individualism.”
      1. all of the basic needs of the people are the sole responsibility of the government.
      2. the government should give direct aid to the people in hard times.
      3. difficult times called for exceptional individuals to exercise power.
      4. the government and the people are partners who must share equal responsibility for the well-being of the populace.
      5. people were able to survive hard times through their inner strength and resources.

    88. The U.S. government allocated massive sums of money to math and science the 1950s in response to which of the following? —  . . . 
      The Soviet satellite Sputnik successfully orbiting the earth
      Explanation
      — The orbiting of Sputnik shook America’s confidence in itself. Americans feared the Soviet Union was surpassing the United States in technology, leading to attempts to improve U.S. math and science education. The Soviets did not land men on the moon (A); the United States did in 1969. The Cuban Revolution influenced U.S. policy in the 1960s (B), but the shift in educational focus was a 1950s phenomenon. It was the United States that developed the first hydrogen bomb (C) in 1952. America has produced more than its share of Nobel Prize winners in science (E).
      1. Fidel Castro coming to power in Cuba
      2. The Soviet Union developing the world’s first hydrogen bomb
      3. The Soviet Union landing men on the moon
      4. The Soviet satellite Sputnik successfully orbiting the earth
      5. The United States failing to produce a Nobel Prize winner in science

    89. Which chief justice of the Supreme Court was said to be the leader of a very activist court? —  . . . 
      Earl Warren
      Explanation
      — Earl Warren headed the Supreme Court from 1953 to 1969. Decisions during his tenure reflected a broad interpretation of the Constitution. Decisions that helped the Warren Court earn its reputation for “activism” include Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), ruling school segregation unconstitutional; Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), mandating counsel for indigent defendants; and Miranda v. Arizona (1966), requiring that the police read arrested people their rights. Rehnquist (A) and Burger (E) were conservatives who claimed to be “strict constructionists.” Frankfurter (C) and Taney (D) issued very few decisions that could be used to describe them as “activists.”
      1. Felix Frankfurter
      2. William Rehnquist
      3. Roger Taney
      4. Warren Burger
      5. Earl Warren

    90. The New Right of the 1990s could best be described as  . . . 
      an ultraconservative group within the Republican Party that gained control of Congress in 1994.
      Explanation
      — The “New Right” was a label applied to Republicans elected to Congress in 1994 who attempted to implement the conservative “Contract with America”—a program of tax cuts, congressional term limits, tougher crime laws, a balanced budget amendment, and other reforms. Newt Gingrich emerged as leader of this ultra-conservative faction of the Republican Party. Bill Clinton and other centrist Democrats (A), not the New Right, formed the Democratic Leadership Conference to move the Democratic Party away from its traditional liberal agenda. The Black Caucus in Congress and other liberal members of Congress have voiced opposition to the rightward shift of the Democratic Party under Bill Clinton (B). People of different political leanings supported Clinton’s welfare reform program (C). No group of Republicans opposed the impeachment of Bill Clinton (E).
      1. popular support for President Clinton’s welfare reform policies.
      2. a group of conservative Democrats who sought to move their party away from its liberal agenda.
      3. a group of Richard Nixon Republicans who opposed the impeachment of President Clinton.
      4. a liberal reaction to the conservative direction of the Democratic Party.
      5. an ultraconservative group within the Republican Party that gained control of Congress in 1994.