Feb 7, 2017

TOEFL: Reading comprehension and vocabulary (Test 1, Section 3)

10 cards
, 40 answers
    TOEFL
    Section 3: Reading comprehension and vocabulary (55 minutes, 60 questions)

    The Reading Comprehension section will have several short paragraphs. You must read the paragraphs and then answer questions which will be based upon what you have just read.

  • DIRECTIONS:
    In this section you will read several passages. Each one is followed by several questions about it. You are to choose the best answer to each question, marked (A), (B), (C), and (D).
    1. Questions 1–10 refer to the following passage.

      As viewed from space. Earth’s distinguishing characteristics are its blue waters and white clouds. Enveloped by an ocean of air consisting of 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, the planet is the only one in our solar system known to harbor life. Circling the Sun at an average distance of 149 million km (93 million miles). Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the fifth largest planet in the solar system.

      Its rapid spin and molten nickel-iron core give rise to an extensive magnetic field which, coupled with the atmosphere, shields us from nearly all of the harmful radiation coming from the Sun and other stars. Most meteors burn up in the Earth’s atmosphere before they can strike the surface. The planet’s active geological processes have left no evidence of the ancient pelting it almost certainly received soon after it was formed.

      The Earth has a single natural satellite—the Moon.
      1. Approximately how much of the Earth’s atmosphere is nitrogen?       ⇢       The answer is
        Three-fourths
        “Enveloped by an ocean of air consisting of 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, the planet is the only one in our solar system known to harbor life.” 78% is approximately equivalent to three-fourths.
        The other answer choices do not convey the correct percentage.
        1. One-half
        2. One-fourth
        3. All of it
        4. Three-fourths

      2. Why does the Earth show almost no signs of having been hit by numerous meteors in the past?       ⇢       The answer is
        Earth’s natural geologic activity has eliminated most traces.
        The last sentence of the second paragraph holds the answer to this question. “The planet’s active geological processes have left almost no evidence of the ancient pelting it almost certainly received soon after it was formed.” In this case “left almost no evidence” is synonymous with “has eliminated most traces.” Also in this question, “processes” is equivalent to “activity.”
        The other choices are not mentioned in the passage.
        1. Humans have built over most of the craters.
        2. Most meteors fell into the ocean and not on land.
        3. Earth’s magnetic field repelled most meteors.
        4. Earth’s natural geologic activity has eliminated most traces.

      3. It’s probable that the next paragraph would discuss  . . . 
        the Earth’s natural satellite—the Moon
        .       ⇢       The answer is
        the Earth’s natural satellite—the Moon
        Since paragraph three discusses the Moon, it may be assumed that further discussion of the Moon will follow, making “the Earth’s natural satellite—the Moon” the next probable paragraph.
        the solar system as a whole” is too unspecific. The remaining answers are not mentioned.
        1. the solar system as a whole.
        2. the Earth’s natural satellite—the Moon.
        3. rings around Saturn.
        4. people on planets.

      4. This selection leads one to believe that  . . . 
        Earth was hit by meteors in some past time period
        .       ⇢       The answer is
        Earth was hit by meteors in some past time period
        The words in the last paragraph, “the planet’s active geological processes have left no evidence of the ancient pelting it almost certainly received soon after it formed,” lead the reader to believe that Earth was hit by meteors in some past time period.
        Earth never gets hit by meteors” is directly opposite to this. “Earth always gets hit by meteors” is probably false, and “Earth may be bombarded by meteors in the near future” is not discussed in the passage.
        1. Earth was hit by meteors in some past time period.
        2. Earth always gets hit by meteors.
        3. Earth may be bombarded by meteors in the near future.
        4. Earth never gets hit by meteors.

      5. In passage 1, “consisting” most nearly means “ . . . 
        containing
        ”.       ⇢       The answer is
        The answer is containing
        The best choice for the meaning of “consisting” is “containing”.
        The air contains nitrogen and oxygen. It does not “harden”, “withhold”, or “shorten” the oxygen and nitrogen.
        1. withholding.
        2. shortening
        3. containing.
        4. hardening.

      6. What two factors help protect the Earth from radiation?       ⇢       The answer is
        Magnetic field and atmosphere
        The answer to this question appears in the same sentence as the previous question. It is the “magnetic field, coupled with the atmosphere,” that protects the Earth from radiation.
        Choice “Rapid spin and molten nickel-iron core” contribute to the magnetic field and therefore indirectly protect the Earth from radiation, but this is not the best choice from the answers given. The other choices are simply wrong.
        1. The Sun and the Moon
        2. Magnetic field and atmosphere
        3. Blue waters and white clouds
        4. Rapid spin and molten iron-nickel core

      7. The word “distinguishing” as it is used in this selection means  . . . 
        characteristics that set it apart from other planets
        .       ⇢       The answer is
        characteristics that set it apart from other planets
        Basic knowledge enables the reader to know that not all planets are covered with blue oceans. This characteristic is unique to the Earth, making “characteristics that set it apart from other planets” the correct answer.
        1. characteristics like all other planets
        2. devastating in nature
        3. elevating in nature
        4. characteristics that set it apart from other planets

      8. As used in this selection, the word “harbor” is synonymous with “ . . . 
        support
        ”.       ⇢       The answer is
        support
        One definition of “harbor” is “support.”
        Another meaning of harbor is as a body of water. That is not the correct meaning in this case, as can be discerned by examining the context of the word within the passage. The remaining answers are not relevant.
        1. include
        2. support
        3. surround
        4. water

      9. The main idea of this passage is that  . . . 
        there are life-supporting characteristics on Earth
        .       ⇢       The answer is
        there are life-supporting characteristics on Earth
        In the first paragraph there is the statement, “the planet is the only one in our solar system known to harbor life.” Coupled with the statement in the second paragraph that Earth is shielded from radiation rays, they show why life is possible on Earth.
        Although Earth’s moon is mentioned in “Earth is the only planet with a moon”, the passage says nothing about the existence of moons near other planets. There are no facts given to support the remaining choices.
        1. Earth has no common characteristics with other planets
        2. Earth is the only planet with a moon
        3. there are life-supporting characteristics on Earth
        4. Earth is predominantly water

      10. Which of the following helps to create Earth’s magnetic fields?       ⇢       The answer is
        Its molten metal core
        In order to answer this question, you must know that a nickel-iron core is a metal core. The answer comes from the first sentence of the second paragraph “Its rapid spin and molten nickel-iron core give rise to an extensive magnetic field which, coupled with its atmosphere, shields us from nearly all the harmful radiation coming from the Sun and other stars.”
        Choice “Its nitrogen atmosphere” is mentioned in the same sentence, but it is not a reference to the magnetic field. Choices “Its blue waters” and “The Moon” are also not part of the magnetic field.
        1. The Moon
        2. Its nitrogen atmosphere
        3. Its molten metal core
        4. Its blue waters

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