Jun 7, 2016

Word matching (Essential Words for the TOEFL)

150 cards
, 600 answers
  • Choose the word that is closest in meaning to the underlined word in the sentence.
    1. Thistle plants have dense heads of small, pink or purple flowers.
      1. vibrant
      2. fragile
      3. thick
      4. gigantic

    2. Fossil evidence confirms that the ancient cuttlefish has existed in its present form for more than 20 million years.
      1. proves
      2. reveals
      3. clarifies
      4. suggests

    3. Crowd behavior is characterized as a spontaneous collective reaction to a publicly observed event.
      1. gratifying
      2. instinctive
      3. chaotic
      4. uninterrupted

    4. In a television receiver, a narrow beam of electrons bombards the back of a screen in a scanning motion.
      1. negative
      2. thin
      3. steady
      4. balanced

    5. Technical curricula are requisite in a wide range of fields.
      1. assimilated
      2. acquired
      3. promoted
      4. demanded

    6. In the 1930s, the poor business environment created a lack of confidence in the economy.
      1. accelerated
      2. mirrored
      3. produced
      4. dictated

    7. The evolution of life on Earth may be partially typical of the evolution of life on many other planets.
      1. somewhat
      2. occasionally
      3. nevertheless
      4. exceptionally

    8. The value of a nation’s currency normally fluctuates, depending upon the strength of its economy and its trade balance.
      1. treasury
      2. money
      3. products
      4. exports

    9. Modern commercial practice relies to a growing extent on arbitration to handle disputes.
      1. intensify
      2. manage
      3. postpone
      4. avoid

    10. Under the microscope, cultivated silk fibers look coarse.
      1. delicate
      2. rough
      3. rigid
      4. immense

    11. Curiosity prompted Leonardo da Vinci to become the world’s greatest designer.
      1. hastened
      2. induced
      3. obliged
      4. defied

    12. The first swimsuit concealed the shape of the human body.
      1. hid
      2. revealed
      3. distorted
      4. flattered

    13. Most species of birds walk long distances infrequently.
      1. rarely
      2. continually
      3. selectively
      4. briefly

    14. Corn and soybeans are cultivated on Maryland’s eastern shore.
      1. found
      2. acquired
      3. grown
      4. cooked

    15. Exacting standards and rigorous early training are evident where dance has become an art performed before an audience.
      1. emphasized
      2. suitable
      3. crucial
      4. apparent

    16. For many years, scientists were baffled by the small size of the atom.
      1. limited
      2. amazed
      3. fascinated
      4. puzzled

    17. The production of steel and the mining of coal are the predominant industries of Pennsylvania.
      1. overlooked
      2. archaic
      3. principal
      4. inactive

    18. The sweet potato is chiefly grown in the southern United States.
      1. successfully
      2. rarely
      3. exclusively
      4. mostly

    19. Once the English colonies became independent state, they faced the problem of giving themselves a fresh political organization.
      1. confronted
      2. solved
      3. anticipated
      4. eluded

    20. The narrow, green-grey leaves of the sweet alyssum are untoothed and usually bear many silvery hairs.
      1. yield
      2. replace
      3. hide
      4. carry

    21. Joseph Haydn was undoubtedly the most prolific of all symphony writers, and his works spanned what has been called the Classical era.
      1. interpreted
      2. launched
      3. covered
      4. exemplified

    22. The human adult heart is normally the size of a clenched fist and weighs about
      300 grams.
      1. roughly
      2. actually
      3. scarcely
      4. typically

    23. Pop art aimed to portray all facets of modern culture.
      1. aspects
      2. heroes
      3. celebrities
      4. problems

    24. The construction of the Saint Lawrence seaway was an undertaking of great proportions.
      1. sacrifice
      2. dimensions
      3. triumphs
      4. renown

    25. The classical economic theory explaining consumer behavior is built on the notion of marginal utility.
      1. opposition
      2. investigation
      3. effectiveness
      4. concept

    26. Manitoba’s leaders anticipated the changing economic environment during the early part of the twentieth century.
      1. conformed to
      2. made use of
      3. predicted
      4. welcomed

    27. Modes of suggestion are usually verbal or visual and sometimes may involve the other senses.
      1. enhance
      2. disrupt
      3. include
      4. influence

    28. Teflon was inadvertently discovered by two scientists who were working with synthetic resins.
      1. conscientiously
      2. systematically
      3. unexpectedly
      4. miraculously

    29. Many nature films omit information about the breeding, parenting, and fishing behavior of the Pel fishing owl.
      1. contribute
      2. narrate
      3. portray
      4. neglect

    30. After the War of the Worlds broadcast, law enforcement agencies were inundated by the numerous inquiries they received.
      1. delighted
      2. astonished
      3. agitated
      4. overwhelm

    31. When widespread thunderstorms occur, the sky is commonly overcast with many intermingled layers of clouds of various types.
      1. extensive
      2. powerful
      3. severe
      4. hazardous

    32. Martin Luther King gained recognition for his use of nonviolent methods.
      1. promoted
      2. rejected
      3. earned
      4. enhanced

    33. President Ford was a frequent opponent of inflationary spending measures passed by Congress.
      1. submitted
      2. initiated
      3. financed
      4. approved

    34. Presumably desolate desert and tundra areas actually harbor many forms of life.
      1. shelter
      2. generate
      3. favor
      4. halt

    35. The major American comic publishing houses were founded during the early nineteenth century.
      1. circulated
      2. altered
      3. criticized
      4. established

    36. The lack of water has been a major factor in industrial growth.
      1. use
      2. abuse
      3. shortage
      4. distribution

    37. Organic compounds often contain special groups of atoms, called functional groups, that readily undergo chemical reaction.
      1. reluctantly
      2. occasionally
      3. freely
      4. repeatedly

    38. Swallows are among the most agile passerine birds.
      1. energetic
      2. frail
      3. nimble
      4. beautiful

    39. Daniel Webster applied the oratorical skill he had mastered as a lawyer to heighten his appeal for an end to slavery.
      1. popularize
      2. convey
      3. intensify
      4. retrieve

    40. The thermostat is an element in some types of fire detection devices.
      1. problem
      2. amenity
      3. component
      4. advantage

    41. Not until 1946 did the world chess governing body, FIDE, assert its control over international championship play.
      1. petition
      2. declare
      3. decrease
      4. relinquish

    42. Casey Stengel was undeniably one of the most successful coaches in the history of baseball.
      1. conceivably
      2. unexpectedly
      3. likely
      4. absolutely

    43. Pioneers traveling to the west found a vast treasury of natural resources.
      1. precious
      2. elaborate
      3. prominent
      4. huge

    44. Folklore holds that mermaids are natural beings who have prophetic powers.
      1. analogous
      2. predictive
      3. intrusive
      4. formidable

    45. The candidate’s support evaporated after the announcement of his program reached the newspapers and televisions news programs.
      1. broadened
      2. burgeoned
      3. disappeared
      4. suffered

    46. Mollusks, crustaceans, and fish are plentiful in the Chesapeake Bay.
      1. abundant
      2. declining
      3. vanishing
      4. gathered

    47. Politicians often woo voters by proposing sweeping reforms of governmental policy.
      1. forfeit
      2. deceive
      3. convince
      4. attract

    48. Gymnasts perform athletic feats that requite a well-toned, limber body.
      1. tiny
      2. flexible
      3. slender
      4. strong

    49. Although jellyfish move by jet propulsion, most are weak swimmers.
      1. superior
      2. impressive
      3. ineffective
      4. clever

    50. In deep water, tidal waves are so long and so slight that ships seldom notice their presence.
      1. relate
      2. record
      3. observe
      4. suspect

    51. The trade unions worked hard for an agreement that would be endorsed by their members.
      1. demanded by
      2. attractive to
      3. supported by
      4. of benefit to

    52. Some people find tranquility when they are far away from the hustle and bustle of city life.
      1. security
      2. fulfillment
      3. amusement
      4. peacefulness

    53. Bright feathers have been used for ornamentation since early times.
      1. Brilliant
      2. Long
      3. Unique
      4. Delicate

    54. No deep understanding of the solar system can be achieved without an appreciation of the basic properties of the Sun.
      1. uniform
      2. thorough
      3. lasting
      4. accurate

    55. Evidence concerning the origins of the native people living in the coastal areas of western Canada is vague.
      1. abundant
      2. contradictory
      3. unclear
      4. acknowledged

    56. The Sweetwater River was supposedly named by General William Ashley in 1823 because its water tasted sweet to his trappers.
      1. aptly
      2. presumably
      3. oddly
      4. predictably

    57. Building construction is an ancient human activity.
      1. contemporary
      2. old
      3. ongoing
      4. vital

    58. Because of his novel approaches to scientific problem, Edison was able to patent dozens of inventions.
      1. original
      2. varied
      3. coherent
      4. unbiased

    59. Growth rings in a log are often so clearly visible that they can reliably indicate age.
      1. approximately
      2. dependably
      3. ordinarily
      4. periodically

    60. The newspaper trip and the comic book represent the dominant graphic mythology of the twentieth century.
      1. magical
      2. routine
      3. major
      4. familiar

    61. All things consist of atoms and molecules that are constantly in motion.
      1. always
      2. hardly
      3. definitely
      4. uniquely

    62. Custer was cautioned by his advisors not to underestimate the strength of his opponent.
      1. persuaded
      2. warned
      3. challenged
      4. known

    63. The power of the sun is trapped by the leaves of plants and used to produce food by a process called photosynthesis.
      1. perceived
      2. reflected
      3. converted
      4. retained

    64. The coast of California is marked by a rugged mountain range and placid bays.
      1. scenic
      2. calm
      3. shallow
      4. sheltered

    65. Lightning is electricity that is discharged as an enormous spark, hitting the closest spot on the ground.
      1. blinding
      2. mighty
      3. terrifying
      4. tremendous

    66. There is a somewhat random character to the evolutionary process.
      1. potent
      2. slight
      3. peculiar
      4. unique

    67. Contrary to popular opinion, the origin of the circus is comparatively recent, having little in common with ancient Roman circuses.
      1. apparently
      2. relatively
      3. sufficiently
      4. exceedingly

    68. For calculating a calendar, it is convenient to use the tropical solar year.
      1. appropriate
      2. practical
      3. critical
      4. necessary

    69. Underestimated tax revenues caused the severe budget crunches that plagued local governments during the early 1970s.
      1. Depleted
      2. Miscalculated
      3. Disappointing
      4. Finite

    70. In contrast to their springtime nuptial plumage, ninny songbirds revert to a drab plumage during the winter.
      1. colorless
      2. different
      3. elaborate
      4. sensitive

    71. The colossal Statue of Liberty is situated in New York Harbor on a small island park within sight of Ellis Island.
      1. isolated
      2. exhibited
      3. located
      4. visited

    72. The disappearance of tropical rain forests is a direct result of wanton disregard of this valuable resource by mankind.
      1. sporadic
      2. troubling
      3. precarious
      4. senseless

    73. The climate of Chicago is subject to abrupt changes of weather.
      1. disruptive
      2. sudden
      3. extreme
      4. adverse

    74. The Carnegie Foundation is one of the major philanthropic organizations in the United States.
      1. governmental
      2. humanitarian
      3. altruistic
      4. partisan

    75. Paul Newman’s apparently effortless acting skill has enabled him to play a variety of characters.
      1. deceptively
      2. visibly
      3. extremely
      4. seemingly

    76. The Inuit live in scattered settlements throughout the northern reaches of Canada.
      1. widely dispersed
      2. well-maintained
      3. highly organized
      4. very primitive

    77. The most elementary type of convection can be explained by the fact that heat rises.
      1. prevalent
      2. primary
      3. erratic
      4. mentioned

    78. In order to detect the position of a particle, light must be reflected from it.
      1. existence
      2. location
      3. hue
      4. magnitude

    79. The Twin Towers are familiar symbols of the New York City sky-line.
      1. marvels
      2. ingredients
      3. landmarks
      4. buildings

    80. Astrology contends that the position of constellations at the moment of your birth profoundly influences your future.
      1. subsequently
      2. significantly
      3. unmistakably
      4. consistently

    81. As a government official, Benjamin Franklin often traveled abroad.
      1. secretly
      2. widely
      3. overseas
      4. alone

    82. In 1985, the Coca-Cola Company altered the secret formula of the drink’s ingredients.
      1. restored
      2. modified
      3. proposed
      4. enriched

    83. Sustained industrial growth and strong consumer spending must be present
      in order for an economy to grow.
      1. Moderate
      2. Consistent
      3. Tangible
      4. Measurable

    84. The volume of music contained in the archives of the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers is extraordinary.
      1. quantity
      2. caliber
      3. assortment
      4. sound

    85. The vast majority of animals exhibit a distinct symmetrical form.
      1. rudimentary
      2. familiar
      3. superficial
      4. definite

    86. Evidence suggests that the rumor process eliminates the most improbable accounts of an event.
      1. elicits
      2. deletes
      3. emphasizes
      4. exaggerates

    87. Great technological advances were made during the infancy of the United Stages’ industrial growth.
      1. expansion
      2. recovery
      3. beginning
      4. zenith

    88. Querns have been used for centuries to crush grains.
      1. harvest
      2. grind
      3. distinguish
      4. transport

    89. Advanced scientific disciplines like solar cell technology and genetic engineering are exploding with possibilities.
      1. new
      2. appealing
      3. celebrated
      4. valued

    90. Water is easily the most complex of all the familiar substances that are single chemical compounds.
      1. conventional
      2. complicated
      3. curious
      4. valuable

    91. The Constitution of the United defines the fundamental rights of its citizens.
      1. enacted
      2. ample
      3. essential
      4. selective

    92. Rows of suction-like tube feet enable the starfish to creep along the ocean floor.
      1. crawl
      2. feed
      3. settle
      4. race

    93. History consists of a complex weave of social, cultural, and economic forces that are not easily unraveled.
      1. separated
      2. disregarded
      3. condensed
      4. illustrated

    94. The popular singer Madonna is known for her songs with outlandish lyrics.
      1. bizarre
      2. innovative
      3. melodical
      4. relaxing

    95. When threatened, the opossum often feigns death.
      1. simulates
      2. withstands
      3. confronts
      4. avoids

    96. The dim appearance of the Milky Way results from the combined light of stars too far away to be seen with the naked eye.
      1. curious
      2. faint
      3. immense
      4. unique

    97. A seed is dormant at the time it is shed by its parent.
      1. minuscule
      2. inactive
      3. harvested
      4. primed

    98. Some toxic contaminants in urban water supplies have been found to occur in harmful amounts.
      1. insignificant
      2. substantial
      3. mysterious
      4. unhealthy

    99. Many cross-cultural communication difficulties can be attributed to inevitable blunders in behavior or speech.
      1. unwarranted
      2. unavoidable
      3. unlikely
      4. unpleasant

    100. The composition of heavenly bodies can be discovered by analyzing the light they emit.
      1. examining
      2. intensifying
      3. observing
      4. detecting

    101. It is known from past experience that ore deposits can be exhausted.
      1. depleted
      2. elusive
      3. extensive
      4. inaccessible

    102. Faced with the numerous problems brought on by the new industrial age, wage earners were prone to solve their problems through organization.
      1. inclined
      2. cautioned
      3. fortunate
      4. compelled

    103. Because much collective behavior is dramatic and unpredictable, theories of such behavior are more evaluative than analytic.
      1. hazardous
      2. emotional
      3. terrifying
      4. unexpected

    104. Freshly cut wood must he completely dry before it can be used for construction.
      1. Coarsely
      2. Haphazardly
      3. Recently
      4. Evenly

    105. Sword swallowers must first overcome their fear of projecting the sharp sword down their throat.
      1. disguise
      2. accentuate
      3. treat
      4. conquer

    106. Telescopic images from outer space are often blurred by atmospheric conditions.
      1. clouded
      2. enhanced
      3. limited
      4. blocked

    107. Some languages do not contain separate words for particular colors.
      1. specific
      2. uncommon
      3. radiant
      4. all

    108. Mankind has made solid progress in the eradication of many harmful illnesses.
      1. negligible
      2. substantial
      3. mediocre
      4. sluggish

    109. American poet James Merrily received critical acclaim for his work entitled Jim’s Book.
      1. disapproval
      2. advice
      3. attention
      4. praise

    110. Aside from simply being annoying, loud noises can permanently damage the ear.
      1. bothersome
      2. unwelcome
      3. intolerable
      4. detected

    111. Many delegates to the First Continental Congress felt that it would have been absurd not to give a forceful response to England’s closing of the port of Boston.
      1. ridiculous
      2. difficult
      3. feasible
      4. incorrect

    112. Most tadpoles are vegetarians, albeit those of some species are carnivorous.
      1. supposedly
      2. since
      3. although
      4. simply

    113. A preference for a certain color is and an extremely personal matter.
      1. fairly
      2. annoyingly
      3. highly
      4. obviously

    114. All Cnidarians have the potential to affect human physiology owing to the toxic nature of their nematocysts.
      1. curative
      2. aggravating
      3. debilitating
      4. poisonous

    115. With the advent of cable television and the use of satellites for broadcasting, television reception improved.
      1. arrival
      2. advantage
      3. distribution
      4. refinement

    116. The Monroe Doctrine authorized the United States to intervene in the affairs of Latin American countries in case of foreign invasion.
      1. forbade
      2. tempted
      3. elicited
      4. empowered

    117. The natural forest vegetation has entirely disappeared from the landscape.
      1. completely
      2. reportedly
      3. slowly
      4. conspicuously

    118. Davy Crockett was well known for his witticisms and story telling skills.
      1. wisdom
      2. charisma
      3. humor
      4. endurance

    119. Nowadays coins lack intrinsic value and bills can no longer be converted to gold.
      1. inordinate
      2. nominal
      3. documented
      4. inherent

    120. Anaximander argued that human beings are so helpless at birth that they would almost instantly die if put into the world on their own.
      1. immediately
      2. presumably
      3. discreetly
      4. gradually

    121. Mollusks have a wide range of locomotory patterns.
      1. reactions
      2. controls
      3. habits
      4. motions

    122. In a recent newspaper poll, the compact disc was mentioned as the most popular medium of recorded music.
      1. illustration
      2. convention
      3. account
      4. survey

    123. Quebec is a striking example of the challenges produced when two diverse groups of people live together.
      1. controversial
      2. legitimate
      3. characteristic
      4. remarkable

    124. After doubling the wages of his employees, Henry Ford was sharply criticized for his action.
      1. overtly
      2. improperly
      3. severely
      4. impulsively

    125. In the field of artificial intelligence, scientists study methods for developing computer programs that display aspects of intelligent behavior.
      1. depend on
      2. exhibit
      3. conform to
      4. classify

    126. The cultural life of New Orleans is a synthesis of contributions by both blacks and whites.
      1. product
      2. combination
      3. reflection
      4. demonstration

    127. Because their presence can upset normal markets, some products with commercial potential are intentionally kept off the market-place.
      1. deliberately
      2. confidentially
      3. constantly
      4. arbitrarily

    128. Kapok is made from the silky fibers that encircle the seeds of the tropical silk cotton tree.
      1. surround
      2. release
      3. circulate
      4. destroy

    129. All classifications of human societies and cultures are arbitrary.
      1. ambiguous
      2. insufficient
      3. haphazard
      4. useful

    130. The fire salamander is so called because of an antiquated belief that it could withstand fire.
      1. a carefully fabricated
      2. a well-developed
      3. an old-fashioned
      4. a widely held

    131. There are many means of converting mechanical energy into thermal energy.
      1. benefits
      2. descriptions
      3. theories
      4. methods

    132. Streams were always a problem for stagecoach drivers.
      1. Bandits
      2. Storms
      3. Rivers
      4. Ridges

    133. J. Edgar Hoover was an astute professional who served as director of the FBI for 48 years.
      1. resilient
      2. perceptive
      3. astounding
      4. determined

    134. Industrial cities appeared after the full development of industrial capitalism in the core nation-states of the eighteenth century.
      1. diverse
      2. chief
      3. prosperous
      4. smallest

    135. Many organisms change their function from one season to another.
      1. diet
      2. size
      3. shape
      4. role

    136. Poorly constructed dwellings cannot withstand severe storms.
      1. boats
      2. piers
      3. houses
      4. roads

    137. The cotton gin was commonplace on many nineteenth-century farms.
      1. sorely needed
      2. often required
      3. frequently seen
      4. visibly absent

    138. Shrimping in Mississippi’s tidal areas is not allowed during the summer months.
      1. encouraged
      2. permitted
      3. worthwhile
      4. appealing

    139. From the beginning of the twentieth century, dance phenomena became extremely prolific and colorful.
      1. fashion
      2. events
      3. expression
      4. rhythm

    140. Any insect landing on the Venus flytrap touches trigger hairs that cause the trap to close tightly.
      1. quickly
      2. mercilessly
      3. firmly
      4. involuntarily

    141. The sport of basketball highlights the athletic qualities of endurance, agility, and skill.
      1. emphasizes
      2. encompasses
      3. develops
      4. demands

    142. No fan, electric or otherwise, actually cools the air.
      1. truly
      2. continuously
      3. persistently
      4. haphazardly

    143. A revolution in women’s fashion during the second half of the twentieth century made trousers acceptable for almost all activities.
      1. available
      2. ideal
      3. attractive
      4. permissible

    144. The president’s popularity has eroded since the publication of a recent newspaper article.
      1. shifted
      2. deteriorated
      3. recovered
      4. intensified

    145. The vivid colors of the opal are produced by impurities or small cracks in the stone.
      1. fractures
      2. dents
      3. flaws
      4. particles

    146. Lindbergh’s flight across the Atlantic was extremely perilous.
      1. expensive
      2. effective
      3. dangerous
      4. exhausting

    147. Due to large deposits of debris left by glaciers, the Midwestern plain of the United States is an extremely fertile area for farming.
      1. spacious
      2. level
      3. rich
      4. arid

    148. The inner harbor of Baltimore was once a contaminated part of the city.
      1. a secure
      2. an affordable
      3. a flourishing
      4. a polluted

    149. The first practical calendar was developed by the Egyptians.
      1. standard
      2. intricate
      3. accurate
      4. functional

    150. The history of human thought on the nature of the cosmos offers a number of remarkable lessons.
      1. exceptional
      2. inspiring
      3. enlightening
      4. identical

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