Jul 18, 2016

Apostrophes

15 cards
  • Rule 1
    Use the apostrophe with contractions. The apostrophe is always placed at the spot where the letter(s) has been removed.
    • Examples:
      don’t, isn’t
      You’re right.
      She’s a great teacher.

    • Rule 2
      Use the apostrophe to show possession. Place the apostrophe before the s to show singular possession.
      • Examples:
        one boy’s hat
        one woman’s hat one actress’s hat one child’s hat
        Ms. Chang’s house

      • NOTE
        Although names ending in s or an s sound are not required to have the second s added in possessive form, it is preferred.
        • Rule 3
          Use the apostrophe where the noun that should follow is implied.
          • Example:
            This was his father’s, not his, jacket.

          • Rule 4
            To show plural possession, make the noun plural first. Then immediately use the apostrophe.
            • Examples:
              two boys’ hats
              two women’s hats two actresses’ hats two children’s hats the Changs’ house
              the Joneses’ golf clubs the Strauses’ daughter the Sanchezes’ artwork
              the Hastingses’ appointment
              the Leeses’ books

            • Rule 5
              Do not use an apostrophe for the plural of a name.
              • Examples:
                We visited the Sanchezes in Los Angeles.
                The Changs have two cats and a dog.

              • Rule 6
                With a singular compound noun, show possession with ‘s at the end of the word.
                • Example:
                  my mother-in-law’s hat

                • Rule 7
                  If the compound noun is plural, form the plural first and then use the apostrophe.
                  • Example:
                    my two brothers-in-law’s hats

                  • Rule 8
                    Use the apostrophe and s after the second name only if two people possess the same item.
                    • Examples:
                      Cesar and Maribel’s home is constructed of redwood.
                      Cesar’s and Maribel’s job contracts will be renewed next year.
                      Indicates separate ownership.
                      Cesar and Maribel’s job contracts will be renewed next year.
                      Indicates joint ownership of more than one contract.

                    • Rule 9
                      Never use an apostrophe with possessive pronouns: his, hers, its, theirs, ours, yours, whose. They already show possession so they do not require an apostrophe.
                      • Rule 10
                        The only time an apostrophe is used for it’s is when it is a contraction for it is or it has.
                        • Examples:
                          It’s a nice day.
                          It’s your right to refuse the invitation.
                          It’s been great getting to know you.

                        • Rule 11
                          The plurals for capital letters and numbers used as nouns are not formed with apostrophes.
                          • Examples:
                            She consulted with three M.D.s.
                            BUT
                            She went to three M.D.s’ offices.
                            The apostrophe is needed here to show plural possessive.
                            She learned her ABCs.
                            the 1990s, not the 1990’s
                            the ‘90s or the mid-’70s, not the ‘90’s or the mid-’70’s
                            She learned her times tables for 6s and 7s.

                            • Exception: Use apostrophes with capital letters and numbers when the meaning would be unclear otherwise.

                              • Examples:
                                Please dot your I’s.
                                You don’t mean Is.
                                Ted couldn’t distinguish between her 6’s and 0’s. You don’t mean Os.

                              • Rule 12
                                Use the possessive case in front of a gerund (-ing word).
                                • Examples:
                                  Alex’s skating was a joy to behold.
                                  This does not stop Joan’s inspecting of our facilities next Thursday.

                                • Rule 13
                                  If the gerund has a pronoun in front of it, use the possessive form of that pronoun.
                                  • Examples:
                                    I appreciate your inviting me to dinner.

                                    • I appreciated his working with me to resolve the conflict.

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