Jul 18, 2016

Hyphens Between Words

9 cards
  • Rule 1
    To check whether a compound noun is two words, one word, or hyphenated, you may need to look it up in the dictionary. If you can’t find the word in the dictionary, treat the noun as separate words.
    • Examples:
      eyewitness
      eye shadow
      eye-opener

    • NOTE
      All these words had to be looked up in the dictionary to know what to do with them!
      • Rule 2
        Phrases that have verb, noun, and adjective forms should appear as separate words when used as verbs and as one word when used as nouns or adjectives.
        • Examples:
          The engine will eventually break down. (verb)
          We suffered a breakdown in communications. (noun)
          Please clean up your room. (verb)
          That Superfund site will require specialized cleanup procedures. (adjective)

        • Rule 3
          Compound verbs are either hyphenated or appear as one word. If you do not find the verb in the dictionary, hyphenate it.
          • Examples:
            To air-condition the house will be costly.
            We were notified that management will downsize the organization next year.

          • Rule 4
            Generally, hyphenate between two or more adjectives when they come before a noun and act as a single idea.
            • Examples:
              friendly-looking man
              (compound adjective in front of a noun)
              friendly little girl
              (not a compound adjective)
              brightly lit room
              (Brightly is an adverb describing lit, not an adjective.)

            • Rule 5
              When adverbs other than -ly adverbs are used as compound words in front of a noun, hyphenate. When the combination of words is used after the noun, do not hyphenate.
              • Examples:
                The well-known actress accepted her award.
                Well is an adverb followed by another descriptive word. They combine to form one idea in front of the noun.
                The actress who accepted her award was well known.
                Well known follows the noun it describes, so no hyphen is used.
                A long-anticipated decision was finally made.
                He got a much-needed haircut yesterday.
                His haircut was much needed.

              • Rule 6
                Remember to use a comma, not a hyphen, between two adjectives when you could have used and between them.
                • Examples:
                  I have important, classified documents.
                  Jennifer received a lovely, fragrant bouquet on Valentine’s Day.

                • Rule 7
                  Hyphenate all compound numbers from twenty-one through ninety-nine.
                  • Examples:
                    The teacher had thirty-two children in her classroom.
                    Only twenty-one of the children were bilingual.

                  • Rule 8
                    Hyphenate all spelled-out fractions.
                    • Examples:
                      You need one-third of a cup of sugar for that recipe.

                      • More than one-half of the student body voted for removing soda machines from campus.

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