Jun 7, 2016

Lesson 21: Essential Words for the TOEFL

15 cards
, 60 answers
    decline       ○      gather       ○      motion       ○      partisan       ○      pattern       ○      phenomena       ○      philanthropic       ○      placid       ○      plentiful       ○      reaction       ○      rhythm       ○      scenic       ○      shallow       ○      sheltered       ○      vanishing

    decline
    [v.] to move from good to bad, or from much to little, to refuse
    [Syn.] decrease

    [n.] decline

    The old man’s health has declined since he retired.
    Serious communicable diseases are on the decline in most parts of the world.

    gather
    [v.] to collect
    [Syn.] collect

    [n.] gathering

    He carefully gathered his thoughts just before the interview.
    A gathering of citizens developed outside the courthouse.

    motion
    [n.] the state of changing one’s position
    * to direct by moving
    [Syn.] movement

    [v.] motion*

    The motion of the flame was hypnotic.
    They motioned her to leave the area.

    partisan
    [adj.] strongly supporting a group or point of view
    [Syn.] biased

    Partisan political infighting caused Congress’s influence to decline.
    His views reflected his partisan bins.

    pattern
    [n.] a regular, repeated arrangement or action
    [Syn.] habit

    [adj.] patterned
    [v.] pattern

    The bright pattern of the monarch butterfly distracts its predators.
    The new stadium was patterned after the old traditional ballparks.

    phenomena
    [n.] natural events or facts; strange or notable happenings
    [Syn.] events

    [adv.] phenomenally
    [adj.] phenomenal
    [n.] phenomenon

    Rain showers are almost unknown phenomena in the Atacama Desert of Chile.
    The musician’ s phenomenal performance was applauded by the critics.

    philanthropic
    [adj.] a feeling of love for people, usually resulting in financial aid to worthy causes
    [Syn.] humanitarian

    [n.] philanthropist
    [n.] philanthropy

    The philanthropic work of the foundation benefits all sectors of society.
    His philanthropy is recognized around the world.

    placid
    [adj.] quiet, not easily upset
    [Syn.] calm

    [adv.] placidly

    The placid nature of her personality made her easy to work with.
    The waves moved placidly toward shore.

    plentiful
    [adj.] more than sufficient
    [Syn.] abundant

    [adv.] plentifully
    [n.] plenty

    Examples of Miro’s art plentiful.
    A balanced diet normally provides plenty of the necessary vitamins.

    reaction
    [n.] a reply; a change that occurs when substances are mixed
    [Syn.] response

    [adv.] reactively
    [adj.] reactive
    [v.] react
    [adj.] reactionary

    When chlorine and ammonia are mixed, the chemical reaction causes chlorine gas.
    They reacted to the report by making some swift changes in management.

    rhythm
    [n.] a regular pattern, usually in music
    [Syn.] pulse

    [adv.] rhythmically
    [adj.] rhythmic

    The rhythm of the rain hitting the roof put him to sleep.
    She noticed the rhythmic beating of her heart as the moment of truth arrived.

    scenic
    [adj.] concerning pleasant natural surroundings
    [Syn.] picturesque

    [adv.] scenically
    [n.] scenery
    [n.] scene

    The scenic route to the summit is much more interesting than the fastest route.
    The scenery in rural Japan is impressive.

    shallow
    [adj.] not far from top to bottom
    [Syn.] superficial

    [adv.] shallowly
    [n.] shallowness

    Estuaries are typically shallow bodies of water.
    The result of their research demonstrated the shallowness of the hypothesis.
    $4.5M in gold were found in shallow water — just 6-feet-deep — off the coast of Vero Beach in Florida.

    sheltered
    [adj.] protected from harmful elements; isolated from reality
    [Syn.] protected

    [v.] shelter
    [n.] shelter

    She has led a sheltered life since her parents have done everything for her.
    Everyone looked for shelter from the blazing sun.

    vanishing
    [adj.] going out of sight
    [Syn.] disappearing

    [v.] vanish

    The red squirrel is a vanishing species that needs a protected habitat to survive.
    No one knows with certainty what caused the dinosaurs to vanish from the face of the earth.

  • Choose the synonym.
    1. picturesque
      1. scenic
      2. calm
      3. outlandish
      4. fertile

    2. partisan
      1. patterned
      2. bizarre
      3. abundant
      4. biased

    3. decrease
      1. disguise
      2. decline
      3. omit
      4. halt

    4. disappear
      1. vary
      2. vanish
      3. reject
      4. fabricate

    5. shallow
      1. swift
      2. substantial
      3. placid
      4. superficial

    6. gather
      1. broaden
      2. collect
      3. distribute
      4. enhance

    7. reaction
      1. allocation
      2. investigation
      3. response
      4. means

    8. motion
      1. innovation
      2. narration
      3. reaction
      4. movement

    9. protected
      1. plentiful
      2. phenomenal
      3. sheltered
      4. passable

    10. rhythm
      1. pulse
      2. pattern
      3. function
      4. notion

  • Choose the word that is closest in meaning to the underlined word in the sentence.
    1. Mollusks, crustaceans, and fish are plentiful in the Chesapeake Bay.
      1. vanishing
      2. abundant
      3. gathered
      4. declining

    2. The coast of California is marked by a rugged mountain range and placid bays.
      1. calm
      2. scenic
      3. sheltered
      4. shallow

    3. The Carnegie Foundation is one of the major philanthropic organizations in the United States.
      1. partisan
      2. governmental
      3. humanitarian
      4. altruistic

    4. From the beginning of the twentieth century, dance phenomena became extremely prolific and colorful.
      1. rhythm
      2. fashion
      3. events
      4. expression

    5. Mollusks have a wide range of locomotory patterns.
      1. habits
      2. motions
      3. controls
      4. reactions

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